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Arctostaphylos canescens subsp. canescens

Higher Taxonomy
Family: EricaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4--5, generally free; petals generally (0)4--5, free or fused; stamens (2--5)8--10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1--5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1--many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
Genera In Family: +- 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. Note: Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates.
eFlora Treatment Author: Gary D. Wallace, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ArctostaphylosView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: MANZANITA
Habit: Shrub to small tree, prostrate to erect. Stem: old stems generally +- red, smooth, bark generally thin, peeling, or generally +- gray or red-gray, shredding and rough; burls at base, woody, sprouting after fire, or generally 0; twig hairs 0 or generally +- like those on inflorescence axes, bracts. Leaf: alternate, evergreen; blade flat to convex, base lobed to wedge-shaped, clasping stem or not, margins generally flat, surfaces with stomata generally both abaxially, adaxially, alike in color, hairiness, less often only or fewer abaxially, generally differing in color, hairiness. Inflorescence: +- raceme (generally 0--1-branched) or panicle (generally 2--10-branched), terminal, nascent inflorescence present following stem growth, generally late spring through winter, remaining dormant 4--6 months prior to flower (except in Arctostaphylos pringlei subsp. drupacea); branches 0 or raceme-like; flower bracts leaf-like, generally flat, or scale-like, often folded, keeled, tips rounded to acute to awl-shaped. Flower: radial; sepals 5(4), free, persistent; corolla conic to urn-shaped, lobes in number = sepals, short, rounded, curved back, white to pink; stamens 2 × number of sepals, included, filaments swollen, generally hairy at base, anthers dark red, awns elongate; ovary superior, on disk, 4--10-chambered, ovule 1 per chamber. Fruit: drupe, generally +- depressed-spheric to spheric; flesh generally thick, +- mealy, occasionally 0; stones 2--10, free, fused, or some fused.
Species In Genus: +- 62 species: North America (especially California) to Central America, Eurasia. Etymology: (Greek: bear berries)
Unabridged Note: Rosatti (1986 Syst Bot 12:61--77) showed that in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi little to none of the variation in hairs (including length, glandularity) is genetically based.
eFlora Treatment Author: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley
Species: Arctostaphylos canescensView Description 

Habit: Shrub, erect, 0.3--3 m. Stem: twig canescent to white-tomentose. Leaf: erect; petiole 3--10 mm; blade 2--5 cm, 1--3 cm wide, round-ovate, ovate, or elliptic, white-gray, canescent, base rounded to wedge-shaped, tip acute to abruptly soft-pointed, margin entire, flat. Inflorescence: panicle, 1--3-branched; nascent inflorescence pendent, bell-shaped, axis 1--2 cm, > 1 mm wide, +- obscured, +- canescent to white-tomentose; bracts 6--20 mm, leaf-like, widely lanceolate, canescent; pedicel 5--9 mm, densely hairy, glandular or not. Flower: ovary densely (fruit sparsely) glandular- or nonglandular-hairy. Fruit: 5--10 mm wide, depressed-spheric; stones free. Chromosomes: 2n=26.

Arctostaphylos canescens Eastw. subsp. canescens
Stem: twig short-canescent, nonglandular. Inflorescence: nascent inflorescence axis canescent; pedicel hairy. Flower: ovary and young fruit densely nonglandular-hairy. Fruit: glabrous in age.
Ecology: Chaparral, open forest; Elevation: 200--2000 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoR, w SnFrB (Mount Tamalpais; s Santa Cruz Mtns); Distribution Outside California: southern Oregon. Flowering Time: Jan--May
Synonyms: Arctostaphylos candidissima Eastw.; Arctostaphylos canescens var. candidissima (Eastw.) Munz; Arctostaphylos cinerea Howell, in part
eFlora Treatment Author: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley
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botanical illustration including Arctostaphylos canescens subsp. canescens


Citation for this treatment: V. Thomas Parker, Michael C. Vasey & Jon E. Keeley 2016. Arctostaphylos canescens subsp. canescens, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 29, 2016.

Arctostaphylos canescens subsp. canescens
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© 2012 John Game
Arctostaphylos canescens subsp. canescens
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Arctostaphylos canescens subsp. canescens
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Arctostaphylos canescens subsp. canescens
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Arctostaphylos canescens subsp. canescens
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Arctostaphylos canescens subsp. canescens
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Arctostaphylos canescens subsp. canescens in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Arctostaphylos canescens subsp. canescens:
KR, NCoR, w SnFrB (Mount Tamalpais; s Santa Cruz Mtns);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.