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Viola pedunculata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola pedunculata Torr. & A. Gray
Habit: Perennial herb 5--39 cm, glabrous to puberulent. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally many, branched, clustered on a shallow to deep caudex with fleshy roots. Leaf: simple; basal 0; cauline petiole 2.7--7.2 cm, blade 1--5.5 cm, 1--5.5 cm wide, deltate to ovate, crenate to serrate, base truncate, +- cordate, or tapered, tip acute to obtuse. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2.9--20 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, ciliate or not; petals gold-yellow, upper 2 red-brown abaxially, lower 3 veined dark brown, lateral 2 bearded with club-shaped hairs, lowest 10--20 mm; cleistogamous flowers 0. Fruit: 5--11 mm, elliptic, glabrous. Seed: 2.7 mm, shiny, dark brown. Chromosomes: 2n=12.
Ecology: Open, grassy slopes, hillsides, chaparral, oak woodland, generally full sun; Elevation: < 1540 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCoRO, NCoRI, CW, SW; Distribution Outside California: northern Baja California. Flowering Time: Feb--Apr Note: Often confused with Viola purpurea subsp. purpurea, Viola purpurea subsp. quercetorum. Only larval food plant for federally endangered butterfly.
Synonyms: Viola pedunculata subsp. pedunculata; Viola pedunculata subsp. tenuifolia M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen
Unabridged Note: Only larval food plant for federally endangered Callippe silverspot butterfly, Speyeria callipe callipe (adults also take nectar from other species).
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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botanical illustration including Viola pedunculata


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2017. Viola pedunculata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 19, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 19, 2017.

Viola pedunculata
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© 2016 Neal Kramer
Viola pedunculata
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© 2016 Barry Breckling
Viola pedunculata
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Viola pedunculata
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© 2017 Neal Kramer
Viola pedunculata
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Viola pedunculata
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© 2009 Keir Morse

More photos of Viola pedunculata in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola pedunculata:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.