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Viola pedunculata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola pedunculata Torr. & A. Gray
Habit: Perennial herb 5--39 cm, glabrous to puberulent. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally many, branched, clustered on a shallow to deep caudex with fleshy roots. Leaf: simple; basal 0; cauline petiole 2.7--7.2 cm, blade 1--5.5 cm, 1--5.5 cm wide, deltate to ovate, crenate to serrate, base truncate, +- cordate, or tapered, tip acute to obtuse. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2.9--20 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, ciliate or not; petals gold-yellow, upper 2 red-brown abaxially, lower 3 veined dark brown, lateral 2 bearded with club-shaped hairs, lowest 10--20 mm; cleistogamous flowers 0. Fruit: 5--11 mm, elliptic, glabrous. Seed: 2.7 mm, shiny, dark brown. Chromosomes: 2n=12.
Ecology: Open, grassy slopes, hillsides, chaparral, oak woodland, generally full sun; Elevation: < 1540 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCoRO, NCoRI, CW, SW; Distribution Outside California: northern Baja California. Flowering Time: Feb--Apr Note: Often confused with Viola purpurea subsp. purpurea, Viola purpurea subsp. quercetorum. Only larval food plant for federally endangered butterfly.
Synonyms: Viola pedunculata subsp. pedunculata; Viola pedunculata subsp. tenuifolia M.S. Baker & J.C. Clausen
Unabridged Note: Only larval food plant for federally endangered Callippe silverspot butterfly, Speyeria callipe callipe (adults also take nectar from other species).
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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botanical illustration including Viola pedunculata


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola pedunculata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 10, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on February 10, 2016.

Viola pedunculata
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Viola pedunculata
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Viola pedunculata
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Viola pedunculata
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Viola pedunculata
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© 2012 Neal Kramer
Viola pedunculata
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© 2009 Keir Morse

More photos of Viola pedunculata in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola pedunculata:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.