Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Viola ocellata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola ocellata Torr. & A. Gray
Habit: Perennial herb 2--37 cm, +- glabrous to generally puberulent. Stem: ascending to erect, generally several, from shallow rhizome or a deep rhizomatous caudex with fleshy roots. Leaf: simple; basal 1--6 per caudex, +- glabrous to generally puberulent, petiole 3.7--10 cm, blade 1--6 cm, 1.2--4 cm wide, ovate, deltate, +- reniform, crenate, base generally +- cordate, tip acute; cauline petiole 0.4--9 cm, blade 1.6--4.4 cm, 1.1--3.6 cm wide, ovate, deltate, triangular, crenate to +- serrate, base +- cordate to truncate, tip acute to obtuse. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 1--10 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, +- ciliate; petals white adaxially, upper 2 deep red-violet abaxially with yellow basally, lateral 2 with large purple spot basally above smaller yellow area, bearded with club-shaped hairs, lowest petal 5--15 mm with large yellow spot basally, veined purple. Fruit: 5--8 mm, round-ovoid, minutely scabrous. Seed: +- 2 mm, brown-purple. Chromosomes: 2n=12.
Ecology: Moist or vernally moist areas, rocky or grassy banks, thickets, yellow-pine, redwood forest, often on serpentine; Elevation: 75--1280 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaRF, n&s CW; Distribution Outside California: southwestern Oregon. Flowering Time: Mar--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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botanical illustration including Viola ocellata


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola ocellata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 06, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 06, 2016.

Viola ocellata
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Viola ocellata
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© 2009 Gary A. Monroe
Viola ocellata
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© 2009 California Academy of Sciences
Viola ocellata
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© 2004 Aaron Schusteff
Viola ocellata
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© 2016 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Viola ocellata
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© 2009 California Academy of Sciences

More photos of Viola ocellata in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola ocellata:
NW, CaRF, n&s CW;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.