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Viola nephrophylla

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola nephrophylla Greene
Habit: Perennial herb to 50 cm, from thick, fleshy rhizomes, generally glabrous. Stem: 0. Leaf: simple, basal, ascending to erect, petiole 5--25 cm, blade in midseason 1--7 cm, 1--7 cm wide, ovate to widely ovate or reniform, crenate or serrate, base cordate to widely ovate, tip acute or obtuse. Inflorescence: scapose; peduncle 3--25 cm. Flower: sepals ovate to lanceolate, ciliate or not; petals deep blue-violet to white, lower 3 white basally, veined dark violet, lateral 2, sometimes lowest bearded with cylindric or club-shaped hairs, lowest 10--22 mm; cleistogamous flowers 0. Fruit: 5--12 mm, ellipsoid, glabrous. Seed: 1.5--2.5 mm, beige, mottled to bronze. Chromosomes: 2n=54.
Ecology: Shady areas in moist or swampy ground, lake margins, yellow-pine forest; Elevation: 335--2302 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaRH, n SNH, SCo, SnGb, SnBr, GB; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia eastern to Nova Scotia; to eastern United States. Flowering Time: Jan--Sep
Synonyms: Viola affinis Leconte; Viola arizonica Greene; Viola cognata Greene; Viola mccabeiana M.S. Baker; Viola nephrophylla var. arizonica (Greene) Kearney & Peebles; Viola nephrophylla var. cognata (Greene) C.L. Hitchc.; Viola sororia Willd. subsp. affinis (Leconte) R.J. Little; Viola sororia var. affinis (Leconte) McKinney
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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botanical illustration including Viola nephrophylla


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola nephrophylla, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 29, 2016.

Viola nephrophylla
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Viola nephrophylla
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© 2008 George W. Hartwell
Viola nephrophylla
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Viola nephrophylla
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Viola nephrophylla
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Viola nephrophylla
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© 2007 George W. Hartwell

More photos of Viola nephrophylla in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola nephrophylla:
KR, CaRH, n SNH, SCo, SnGb, SnBr, GB;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.