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Viola nephrophylla

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola nephrophylla Greene
Habit: Perennial herb to 50 cm, from thick, fleshy rhizomes, generally glabrous. Stem: 0. Leaf: simple, basal, ascending to erect, petiole 5--25 cm, blade in midseason 1--7 cm, 1--7 cm wide, ovate to widely ovate or reniform, crenate or serrate, base cordate to widely ovate, tip acute or obtuse. Inflorescence: scapose; peduncle 3--25 cm. Flower: sepals ovate to lanceolate, ciliate or not; petals deep blue-violet to white, lower 3 white basally, veined dark violet, lateral 2, sometimes lowest bearded with cylindric or club-shaped hairs, lowest 10--22 mm; cleistogamous flowers 0. Fruit: 5--12 mm, ellipsoid, glabrous. Seed: 1.5--2.5 mm, beige, mottled to bronze. Chromosomes: 2n=54.
Ecology: Shady areas in moist or swampy ground, lake margins, yellow-pine forest; Elevation: 335--2302 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaRH, n SNH, SCo, SnGb, SnBr, GB; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia eastern to Nova Scotia; to eastern United States. Flowering Time: Jan--Sep
Synonyms: Viola affinis Leconte; Viola arizonica Greene; Viola cognata Greene; Viola mccabeiana M.S. Baker; Viola nephrophylla var. arizonica (Greene) Kearney & Peebles; Viola nephrophylla var. cognata (Greene) C.L. Hitchc.; Viola sororia Willd. subsp. affinis (Leconte) R.J. Little; Viola sororia var. affinis (Leconte) McKinney
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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botanical illustration including Viola nephrophylla


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2017. Viola nephrophylla, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 17, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 17, 2017.

Viola nephrophylla
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Viola nephrophylla
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Viola nephrophylla
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© 2007 George W. Hartwell
Viola nephrophylla
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Viola nephrophylla
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© 2008 George W. Hartwell
Viola nephrophylla
click for enlargement
© 2012 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Viola nephrophylla in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola nephrophylla:
KR, CaRH, n SNH, SCo, SnGb, SnBr, GB;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.