Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Viola howellii
HOWELL'S VIOLET

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Common Name: VIOLET FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola howellii A. Gray
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb 2--44 cm, glabrous to sparsely hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect, 1--4, not woody at base, often much elongated by season end, clustered on 1--3 caudices generally at ground level, from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 1--6 per caudex, petiole 4--15 cm, blade 1.9--6.8 cm, 2.1--6.4 cm wide, ovate to reniform, thin, crenate, base cordate, tip acute to generally obtuse; cauline petiole 1--4.5 cm, blade 2--5.1 cm, 1.2--5.8 cm wide, +- like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2.8--14 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, ciliate or not; petals violet to soft blue-violet, +- white at base to +- white, lower 3 veined dark violet, lateral 2 densely bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 14--23 mm, spur 2.4--5 mm, +- as long as wide. Fruit: 7--11 mm, elliptic, glabrous. Seed: light brown, 1.5 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=40,80.
Ecology: Moist, shady areas, conifer forest; Elevation: 50--1295 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR (near Joe Bar, Siskiyou Co.); Distribution Outside California: British Columbia, Oregon, Washington. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Viola hallii
Next taxon: Viola langsdorffii

Name Search

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola howellii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=48222, accessed on April 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on April 28, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Viola howellii:
KR (near Joe Bar, Siskiyou Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.