Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Vascular Plants of California
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Viola howellii
HOWELL'S VIOLET


Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 
Common Name: VIOLET FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).
Unabridged Reference: Baker, M.S. 1949a. Studies in western violets. IV. Leafl. West. Bot. 5: 141--147; Baker, M.S. 1949b. Studies in western violets. VI; Madroño 10: 110--128; Baker, M.S. 1957. Brittonia 9: 217--230; Ballard, H.E. 1992. Systematics of Viola Section Viola in North Am north of Mexico. M.S. thesis, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan; Ballard, H.E. 1994. Violets of Michigan. Michigan Botanist 33: 131--199; Davidse, G. 1976. A study of some Intermountain violets (Viola Sect. Chamaemelanium). Madroño 23: 274--283; Fabijan et al. 1987. The taxonomy of the Viola nuttallii complex. Can. J. Bot. 65: 2562--2580; Gil-ad, N.L. 1995. Systematics and evolution of Viola L. subsection Boreali-Americanae (W. Becker) Brizicky. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Gil-ad, N.L. 1997. Systematics of Viola subsection Boreali-Americanae. Boissiera 53: 1--130; Gil-ad, N.L. 1998. The micromorphologies of seed coats and petal trichomes of the taxa of Viola subsect. Boreali-Americanae (Violaceae) and their utility in discerning orthospecies from hybrids. Brittonia 50: 91--121; Hitchcock, C.L. 1961. Vasc. Pl. Pacific NorthW. Vol. 3; McKinney, L.E. 1992. A taxonomic revision of the acaulescent blue violets (Viola) of North Am. Sida Botanical Miscellany, 7: 1--59; McKinney, L.E. and N. Russell. 2002. Violaceae of the Southeastern United States. Castanea 4: 369--379; Russell, N.H. 1965. Violets (Viola) of the central and eastern United States: an introductory survey. Sida 1: 1--113
Viola howellii A. Gray
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb 2--44 cm, glabrous to sparsely hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect, 1--4, not woody at base, often much elongated by season end, clustered on 1--3 caudices generally at ground level, from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 1--6 per caudex, petiole 4--15 cm, blade 1.9--6.8 cm, 2.1--6.4 cm wide, ovate to reniform, thin, crenate, base cordate, tip acute to generally obtuse; cauline petiole 1--4.5 cm, blade 2--5.1 cm, 1.2--5.8 cm wide, +- like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2.8--14 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, ciliate or not; petals violet to soft blue-violet, +- white at base to +- white, lower 3 veined dark violet, lateral 2 densely bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 14--23 mm, spur 2.4--5 mm, +- as long as wide. Fruit: 7--11 mm, elliptic, glabrous. Seed: light brown, 1.5 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=40,80.
Ecology: Moist, shady areas, conifer forest; Elevation: 50--1295 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR (near Joe Bar, Siskiyou Co.); Distribution Outside California: British Columbia, Oregon, Washington. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
Jepson eFlora Author: R. John Little
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2012, Viola howellii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=48222, accessed on December 15, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on December 15, 2019.

No expert verified images found for Viola howellii.



Geographic subdivisions for Viola howellii:
KR (near Joe Bar, Siskiyou Co.)
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map of distribution 1
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.