Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Viola howellii

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola howellii A. Gray
Habit: Perennial herb 2--44 cm, glabrous to sparsely hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect, 1--4, not woody at base, often much elongated by season end, clustered on 1--3 caudices generally at ground level, from woody rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 1--6 per caudex, petiole 4--15 cm, blade 1.9--6.8 cm, 2.1--6.4 cm wide, ovate to reniform, thin, crenate, base cordate, tip acute to generally obtuse; cauline petiole 1--4.5 cm, blade 2--5.1 cm, 1.2--5.8 cm wide, +- like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2.8--14 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, ciliate or not; petals violet to soft blue-violet, +- white at base to +- white, lower 3 veined dark violet, lateral 2 densely bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 14--23 mm, spur 2.4--5 mm, +- as long as wide. Fruit: 7--11 mm, elliptic, glabrous. Seed: light brown, 1.5 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=40,80.
Ecology: Moist, shady areas, conifer forest; Elevation: 50--1295 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR (near Joe Bar, Siskiyou Co.); Distribution Outside California: British Columbia, Oregon, Washington. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Viola hallii
Next taxon: Viola langsdorffii

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Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2017. Viola howellii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 20, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 20, 2017.

Geographic subdivisions for Viola howellii:
KR (near Joe Bar, Siskiyou Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.