Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Viola hallii

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola hallii A. Gray
Habit: Perennial herb 5--22 cm, glabrous or leaf veins, leaf margins, sepals generally ciliate, stipules occasionally ciliate. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally several, up to 1/2 subterranean, clustered on deep caudex. Leaf: ternate-compound; basal 2--4 per caudex, petiole 5--8 cm, blade 2.8--6 cm, to 2.6--6.5 cm wide, ovate to deltate, fleshy, leaflets dissected into several narrowly elliptic, lanceolate, or oblanceolate segments 1--7 mm wide, tip acute; cauline petiole 1.3--6 cm, blade 2--4.8 cm, 1.2--5.5 cm wide, +- like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2.5--11 cm. Flower: sepals ovate to lanceolate; upper 2 petals dark red-violet, +- black abaxially, lower 3 pale yellow, cream, or +- white, deep yellow to orange basally, veined dark violet, lateral 2 bearded with club-shaped hairs, lowest 5--18 mm; cleistogamous flowers 0. Fruit: 4--12 mm, elliptic, glabrous. Seed: +- 3.5 mm, shiny, pale brown. Chromosomes: 2n=60,72.
Ecology: Vernally moist areas, open forest, grassy hills, flats, chaparral, often serpentine or gravelly soil; Elevation: 150--2100 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW; Distribution Outside California: southwestern Oregon. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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Previous taxon: Viola glabella
Next taxon: Viola howellii

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botanical illustration including Viola hallii


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2017. Viola hallii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 23, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 23, 2017.

Viola hallii
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Viola hallii
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© 2011 John Game
Viola hallii
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© 2017 Steve Matson
Viola hallii
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Viola hallii
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Viola hallii
click for enlargement
© 2017 Steve Matson

More photos of Viola hallii in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola hallii:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.