Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Viola glabella

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola glabella Nutt.
Habit: Perennial herb 3--38 cm, glabrous or finely puberulent. Stem: erect, 1--3, green, from a thick, shallow, vertical or generally horizontal rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 0--4 per caudex, petiole 7--27.5 cm, blade 3.3--8.5 cm, 2--9.3 cm wide, ovate to reniform or round, thin, crenate to serrate, ciliate or not, base cordate, tip acute to rounded; cauline only near stem tip, petiole 0.2--2.9 cm, blade 1.4--5.7 cm, 0.8--4.7 cm wide, ovate to deltate, thin, crenate to +- serrate, base cordate to truncate, tip generally acute. Inflorescence: from upper axils; peduncle 2--8 cm. Flower: sepals lance-linear, not ciliate; petals deep lemon-yellow on both surfaces, lower 3, sometimes upper 2, veined deep purple, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 6--18 mm. Fruit: 7--13 mm, ovate to elliptic, glabrous. Seed: +- 2 mm, shiny, pale brown. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Moist to wet generally shady places in forest, streambanks, etc; Elevation: < 2600 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SN, CW, Wrn; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, Montana; Asia. Flowering Time: Mar--Aug
Synonyms: Viola californica M.S. Baker; Viola deltoidea Greene, illeg.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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botanical illustration including Viola glabella


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2017. Viola glabella, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 17, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 17, 2017.

Viola glabella
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© 2006 Steve Matson
Viola glabella
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© 2006 Steve Matson
Viola glabella
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Viola glabella
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Viola glabella
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© 2004 George W. Hartwell
Viola glabella
click for enlargement
© 2012 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Viola glabella in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola glabella:
NW, CaR, SN, CW, Wrn;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.