Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Viola glabella

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola glabella Nutt.
Habit: Perennial herb 3--38 cm, glabrous or finely puberulent. Stem: erect, 1--3, green, from a thick, shallow, vertical or generally horizontal rhizome. Leaf: simple; basal 0--4 per caudex, petiole 7--27.5 cm, blade 3.3--8.5 cm, 2--9.3 cm wide, ovate to reniform or round, thin, crenate to serrate, ciliate or not, base cordate, tip acute to rounded; cauline only near stem tip, petiole 0.2--2.9 cm, blade 1.4--5.7 cm, 0.8--4.7 cm wide, ovate to deltate, thin, crenate to +- serrate, base cordate to truncate, tip generally acute. Inflorescence: from upper axils; peduncle 2--8 cm. Flower: sepals lance-linear, not ciliate; petals deep lemon-yellow on both surfaces, lower 3, sometimes upper 2, veined deep purple, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 6--18 mm. Fruit: 7--13 mm, ovate to elliptic, glabrous. Seed: +- 2 mm, shiny, pale brown. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Moist to wet generally shady places in forest, streambanks, etc; Elevation: < 2600 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaR, SN, CW, Wrn; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, Montana; Asia. Flowering Time: Mar--Aug
Synonyms: Viola californica M.S. Baker; Viola deltoidea Greene, illeg.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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botanical illustration including Viola glabella


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola glabella, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 03, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 03, 2016.

Viola glabella
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© 2009 Gary A. Monroe
Viola glabella
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© 2014 Barry Rice
Viola glabella
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© 2002 California Academy of Sciences
Viola glabella
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Viola glabella
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© 1988 Gary A. Monroe
Viola glabella
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© 2011 California Academy of Sciences

More photos of Viola glabella in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola glabella:
NW, CaR, SN, CW, Wrn;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.