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Viola douglasii
DOUGLAS' VIOLET, GOLDEN VIOLET

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Common Name: VIOLET FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola douglasii Steud.
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb 3--20 cm, glabrous to puberulent. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally several, up to 1/2 subterranean, branched, clustered on deep caudex. Leaf: 2-pinnate-compound; basal 1--6 per caudex, petiole 5--6.8 cm, blade 3.5--5 cm, 2.4--3.5 cm wide, ovate, leaflets 3--5, divided into 3--5 segments, segments 1--2.5(5) mm wide, linear, narrow-elliptic or oblong, generally densely ciliate, tip acute to obtuse; cauline petiole 0.9--4 cm, blade 1.1--4.1 cm, 1--3.6 cm wide, +- like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2--12.5 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, ciliate; petals light gold-yellow, upper 2 dark red-brown to +- black abaxially, lower 3 veined dark brown, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 8--21 mm; cleistogamous flowers 0. Fruit: 5--12 mm, round to oblong, glabrous. Seed: +- 2.5 mm, pale brown. Chromosomes: 2n=24,48.
Ecology: Vernally moist flats, grassy slopes, often on serpentine; Elevation: 20--2300 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaRH, SNF, n SNH, Teh, GV, CW, SnGb, SnBr, PR; Distribution Outside California: Oregon, northern Baja California. Flowering Time: Feb--Jul
Synonyms: Viola chrysantha Hook., illeg.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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Previous taxon: Viola cuneata
Next taxon: Viola glabella

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botanical illustration including Viola douglasii

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Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola douglasii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=48202, accessed on December 09, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 09, 2016.


Viola douglasii
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© 2006 Steve Matson
Viola douglasii
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© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Viola douglasii
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© 2009 George W. Hartwell
Viola douglasii
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© 2010 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Viola douglasii
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© 2006 Steve Matson
Viola douglasii
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© 2007 Carol W. Witham

More photos of Viola douglasii in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Viola douglasii:
NW, CaRH, SNF, n SNH, Teh, GV, CW, SnGb, SnBr, PR;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.