Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Viola cuneata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola cuneata S. Watson
Habit: Perennial herb 2--25 cm, glabrous. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally several from thin, shallow rhizome or a deep caudex with fleshy roots. Leaf: simple; basal 2--6 per caudex, petiole 4.5--9.8 cm, blade 1--4 cm, 2.7--3.8 cm wide, round-ovate to deltate, generally shiny, +- leathery, veined purple, +- serrate, base wedge-shaped, tip acute; cauline petiole 0.5--20 cm, blade 0.9--2.6 cm, 0.7--1.8 cm wide, round to generally diamond-shaped, crenate to +- serrate, base wedge-shaped, tip acute to obtuse. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 1--10.5 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate with purple midvein, not ciliate; petals white adaxially, deep red-violet abaxially, upper 2 often overlapped, with yellow area basally, lateral 2 with large purple spot basally above smaller yellow area, bearded with club-shaped hairs, lowest 8--14 mm, veined purple, with large yellow spot basally. Fruit: 5--9 mm, +- round, glabrous to +- minutely scabrous. Seed: 2.5--3 mm, deep brown-purple.
Ecology: Uncommon. Vernally moist areas in open pine or oak forests, often on serpentine; Elevation: 120--2200 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, n SNH; Distribution Outside California: southwestern Oregon. Flowering Time: Mar--Sep
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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botanical illustration including Viola cuneata


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola cuneata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Viola cuneata
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© 2009 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Viola cuneata
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Viola cuneata
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© 2013 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Viola cuneata
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© 2006 Steve Matson
Viola cuneata
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© 2008 George W. Hartwell
Viola cuneata
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© 2013 Julie Kierstead Nelson

More photos of Viola cuneata in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola cuneata:
NW, n SNH;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.