Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Viola cuneata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola cuneata S. Watson
Habit: Perennial herb 2--25 cm, glabrous. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally several from thin, shallow rhizome or a deep caudex with fleshy roots. Leaf: simple; basal 2--6 per caudex, petiole 4.5--9.8 cm, blade 1--4 cm, 2.7--3.8 cm wide, round-ovate to deltate, generally shiny, +- leathery, veined purple, +- serrate, base wedge-shaped, tip acute; cauline petiole 0.5--20 cm, blade 0.9--2.6 cm, 0.7--1.8 cm wide, round to generally diamond-shaped, crenate to +- serrate, base wedge-shaped, tip acute to obtuse. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 1--10.5 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate with purple midvein, not ciliate; petals white adaxially, deep red-violet abaxially, upper 2 often overlapped, with yellow area basally, lateral 2 with large purple spot basally above smaller yellow area, bearded with club-shaped hairs, lowest 8--14 mm, veined purple, with large yellow spot basally. Fruit: 5--9 mm, +- round, glabrous to +- minutely scabrous. Seed: 2.5--3 mm, deep brown-purple.
Ecology: Uncommon. Vernally moist areas in open pine or oak forests, often on serpentine; Elevation: 120--2200 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, n SNH; Distribution Outside California: southwestern Oregon. Flowering Time: Mar--Sep
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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botanical illustration including Viola cuneata


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2017. Viola cuneata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 26, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 26, 2017.

Viola cuneata
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© 2017 Steve Matson
Viola cuneata
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© 2013 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Viola cuneata
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© 2006 Steve Matson
Viola cuneata
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© 2016 Steve Matson
Viola cuneata
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Viola cuneata
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© 2016 Keir Morse

More photos of Viola cuneata in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola cuneata:
NW, n SNH;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.