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Viola beckwithii

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola beckwithii Torr. & A. Gray
Habit: Perennial herb 2--22 cm, glabrous to puberulent. Stem: decumbent to erect, generally several, up to 1/2 subterranean, clustered on deep caudex. Leaf: ternate-compound; basal 2--6 per caudex, generally puberulent (glabrous), petiole 2--10.5 cm, blade 2.4--5 cm, 3.5--4.5 cm wide, ovate to deltate, +- fleshy, leaflets dissected into several 1--7 mm wide, narrow oblong, elliptic, lanceolate, or oblanceolate segments, tip obtuse to acute; cauline petiole 2--5.7 cm, blade 1--2.7 cm, 1.5--3 cm wide, +- like basal. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2--15.7 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, not ciliate; upper 2 petals dark red-violet, often overlapped, lower 3 lilac to +- white, veined dark violet, yellow to orange basally, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric hairs, lowest 10--22 mm; cleistogamous flowers 0. Fruit: 7--12 mm, oblong-ovoid, glabrous. Seed: 3--4 mm, brown.
Ecology: Vernally moist places among shrubs or beneath pines; Elevation: 900--2700 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaRH, n SNH, MP; Distribution Outside California: to Oregon, Idaho, Utah. Flowering Time: Mar--May Note: 3 lower petals white in some populations (V.B. Baird 1942).
Synonyms: Viola beckwithii subsp. glabrata M.S. Baker
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
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botanical illustration including Viola beckwithii


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola beckwithii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Viola beckwithii
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© 2000 John Game
Viola beckwithii
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© 2012 Gary A. Monroe
Viola beckwithii
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© 2011 Steve Matson
Viola beckwithii
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© 2011 Steve Matson
Viola beckwithii
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© 2003 Steve Matson
Viola beckwithii
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson

More photos of Viola beckwithii in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola beckwithii:
KR, CaRH, n SNH, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.