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Vascular Plants of California
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Viola arvensis
FIELD PANSY, EUROPEAN FIELD-PANSY, WILD PANSY


Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 
Common Name: VIOLET FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).
Unabridged Reference: Baker, M.S. 1949a. Studies in western violets. IV. Leafl. West. Bot. 5: 141--147; Baker, M.S. 1949b. Studies in western violets. VI; Madroño 10: 110--128; Baker, M.S. 1957. Brittonia 9: 217--230; Ballard, H.E. 1992. Systematics of Viola Section Viola in North Am north of Mexico. M.S. thesis, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan; Ballard, H.E. 1994. Violets of Michigan. Michigan Botanist 33: 131--199; Davidse, G. 1976. A study of some Intermountain violets (Viola Sect. Chamaemelanium). Madroño 23: 274--283; Fabijan et al. 1987. The taxonomy of the Viola nuttallii complex. Can. J. Bot. 65: 2562--2580; Gil-ad, N.L. 1995. Systematics and evolution of Viola L. subsection Boreali-Americanae (W. Becker) Brizicky. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Gil-ad, N.L. 1997. Systematics of Viola subsection Boreali-Americanae. Boissiera 53: 1--130; Gil-ad, N.L. 1998. The micromorphologies of seed coats and petal trichomes of the taxa of Viola subsect. Boreali-Americanae (Violaceae) and their utility in discerning orthospecies from hybrids. Brittonia 50: 91--121; Hitchcock, C.L. 1961. Vasc. Pl. Pacific NorthW. Vol. 3; McKinney, L.E. 1992. A taxonomic revision of the acaulescent blue violets (Viola) of North Am. Sida Botanical Miscellany, 7: 1--59; McKinney, L.E. and N. Russell. 2002. Violaceae of the Southeastern United States. Castanea 4: 369--379; Russell, N.H. 1965. Violets (Viola) of the central and eastern United States: an introductory survey. Sida 1: 1--113
Viola arvensis Murray
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual 5--35 cm, +- glabrous to puberulent. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally several, branched at ground level, from taproot. Leaf: simple; basal 0; cauline stipules +- = leaf, palmately lobed, petiole 0.5--2.3 cm, upper leaf 0.8--3.4 cm, 0.3--1.9 cm wide, blade lanceolate or +- oblong to ovate, generally glabrous adaxially, hairy abaxially at least on major veins, coarsely crenate-serrate, ciliate or not, base rounded to wedge-shaped or lowest truncate, tip blunt to acute. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2--8 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, = or generally > lateral petals, basal lobes prominent, to 4 mm, truncate; petals white to pale yellow, upper 4 +- violet, lower 3 with yellow basal area, often veined violet, lateral 2 bearded with club-shaped hairs, lowest 7--15 mm with dark yellow area basally, spur generally > 3 mm; cleistogamous flowers 0. Fruit: 5--9 mm, +- round, glabrous. Seed: 1.5--1.9 mm, brown. Chromosomes: 2n=34.
Ecology: Abandoned fields; Elevation: < 1333 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaR, SNF, GV, waif from cultivated elsewhere; Distribution Outside California: widespread North America; native to Europe; Siberia, northern Africa. Flowering Time: May--Jul Note: Vegetatively similar to Viola tricolor subsp. tricolor.
Synonyms: Viola tricolor L. var. arvensis (Murray) DC.
Unabridged Note: Roots have odor of wintergreen when crushed (Radford, et al. 1968) due to presence of methyl salicylate in endodermal secretory cells.
Jepson eFlora Author: R. John Little
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Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2012, Viola arvensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=48161, accessed on October 18, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on October 18, 2019.

Viola arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling
Viola arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling
Viola arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling

More photos of Viola arvensis in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Viola arvensis:
KR, CaR, SNF, GV, waif from cultivated elsewhere
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.