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|Family: Violaceae||View Description||Dichotomous Key|
|Genus: Viola||View Description||Dichotomous Key|
|Species:||View Description||Dichotomous Key|
Viola arvensis Murray
Habit: Annual 5--35 cm, +- glabrous to puberulent. Stem: prostrate to erect, generally several, branched at ground level, from taproot. Leaf: simple; basal 0; cauline stipules +- = leaf, palmately lobed, petiole 0.5--2.3 cm, upper leaf 0.8--3.4 cm, 0.3--1.9 cm wide, blade lanceolate or +- oblong to ovate, generally glabrous adaxially, hairy abaxially at least on major veins, coarsely crenate-serrate, ciliate or not, base rounded to wedge-shaped or lowest truncate, tip blunt to acute. Inflorescence: axillary; peduncle 2--8 cm. Flower: sepals lanceolate, = or generally > lateral petals, basal lobes prominent, to 4 mm, truncate; petals white to pale yellow, upper 4 +- violet, lower 3 with yellow basal area, often veined violet, lateral 2 bearded with club-shaped hairs, lowest 7--15 mm with dark yellow area basally, spur generally > 3 mm; cleistogamous flowers 0. Fruit: 5--9 mm, +- round, glabrous. Seed: 1.5--1.9 mm, brown. Chromosomes: 2n=34.
Ecology: Abandoned fields; Elevation: < 1333 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaR, SNF, GV, waif from cultivated elsewhere; Distribution Outside California: widespread North America; native to Europe; Siberia, northern Africa. Flowering Time: May--Jul Note: Vegetatively similar to Viola tricolor subsp. tricolor.
Synonyms: Viola tricolor L. var. arvensis (Murray) DC.
Unabridged Note: Roots have odor of wintergreen when crushed (Radford, et al. 1968) due to presence of methyl salicylate in endodermal secretory cells.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Jepson Online Interchange
Previous taxon: Viola adunca subsp. adunca
Next taxon: Viola bakeri
Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2016. Viola arvensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=48161, accessed on September 26, 2016.
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on September 26, 2016.