Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Viola primulifolia subsp. occidentalis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ViolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, [small shrub, tree, vine], from caudices, taproots, rhizomes, or stolons; hairs 0 or simple. Stem: 0 or prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, [opposite], simple to compound, petioled; stipules generally small; blade linear to round, entire to toothed or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers 1 [raceme], axillary or scapose; peduncle bractlets 2, generally alternate. Flower: bisexual, bilateral [radial]; sepals 5, free, basal lobes present [0], generally not prominent; petals 5, free, lowest often largest, base +- elongated into a spur; stamens 5, alternate petals, filaments short, wide, with large in-pointing hairs, lowest 2 anthers with basal nectaries extending into petal spur; ovary superior, chamber 1, placentas parietal, 3, ovules [1] generally many, style 1, often enlarged distally, stigma often oblique or hooked, hairy or not. Fruit: capsule [berry], 3-valved, loculicidal, explosively dehiscent or not. Seed: generally with outgrowth, attractive to ants.
Genera In Family: 23 genera, 830 species: worldwide, generally temperate, tropics (especially higher elevations). Note: Lengths of lowest petal including spur.
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: ViolaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VIOLET
Leaf: generally deciduous. Flower: sepals +- equal, entire; petals unequal, lowest generally largest, with spur generally < 3 [20] mm, lateral 2 equal, generally spreading, upper 2 equal, erect or reflexed, overlapped or not, lateral 2 generally, others sometimes with beard of variously shaped hairs basally; cleistogamous flowers generally present, petals 0. Fruit: ovoid to oblong, hairy or not. Seed: 8--75.
Species In Genus: +- 500 species: temperate, worldwide, Hawaii, Andes. Etymology: (Latin: classical name) Note: Important orns including Viola odorata, Viola tricolor L. (Johnny-jump-up, wild pansy), Viola ×wittrockiana Gams (garden pansy).

Viola primulifolia L. subsp. occidentalis (A. Gray) L.E. McKinney & R.J. Little
Habit: Perennial herb to 20 cm, from thin rhizomes, stoloned in summer, generally glabrous or sparsely hairy on petioles, leaf bases, or peduncles. Stem: 0. Leaf: simple, basal, prostrate to ascending, petiole 1--10 cm, blade 1.5--7 cm, 1--3 cm wide, lanceolate, narrowly ovate, or elliptic, crenate to serrate, generally not ciliate, base generally tapered, tip acute or rounded. Inflorescence: scapose; peduncle 3--12 cm. Flower: sepals ovate to lanceolate, not ciliate, often purple-spotted; petals white, lower 3 veined purple, lateral 2 bearded with cylindric or club-shaped hairs, lowest 10--14 mm; cleistogamous flowers 0. Fruit: 5--8 mm, elliptic, glabrous. Seed: 1.5--2 mm, beige to bronze. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Marshes, bogs often with Darlingtonia; Elevation: 100--500 m. Bioregional Distribution: nw KR (near Gasquet, Del Norte Co.); Distribution Outside California: southwestern Oregon. Flowering Time: Apr--Sep
eFlora Treatment Author: R. John Little
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Viola praemorsa subsp. praemorsa
Next taxon: Viola purpurea

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botanical illustration including Viola primulifolia subsp. occidentalis


Citation for this treatment: R. John Little 2017. Viola primulifolia subsp. occidentalis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on August 19, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on August 19, 2017.

Viola primulifolia subsp. occidentalis
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© 2017 Steve Matson
Viola primulifolia subsp. occidentalis
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Viola primulifolia subsp. occidentalis
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Viola primulifolia subsp. occidentalis
click for enlargement
© 2017 Steve Matson
Viola primulifolia subsp. occidentalis
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Viola primulifolia subsp. occidentalis
click for enlargement
© 2007 John Game

More photos of Viola primulifolia subsp. occidentalis in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Viola primulifolia subsp. occidentalis:
nw KR (near Gasquet, Del Norte Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.