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Verbena litoralis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: VerbenaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to shrub [tree], generally hairy. Leaf: cauline, opposite, generally toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or head, generally elongated in fruit; bract generally 1 per flower. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally 4--5-toothed; corolla 4--5-lobed, radial to bilateral, salverform to 2-lipped; stamens 4--5 (if 4, generally in unequal pairs), epipetalous; ovary superior, 2- or 4-lobed, generally 2- chambered, style 1, often with 2 unequal lobes, only 1 stigmatic, lateral. Fruit: 2 or 4 nutlets, drupe-like, or capsule.
Genera In Family: +- 31 genera, +- 920 species: especially America tropics. Some cultivated (Lantana, Verbena, Vitex); some weedy worldwide (Lantana); some used for wood (Tectona, teak). Avicennia included in Acanthaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: VerbenaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VERVAIN
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: often 4-angled; hairs generally short, stiff. Leaf: reduced distally on stem; blade entire to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: spike, often in panicle-like clusters, generally terminal, generally elongated in fruit. Flower: calyx 5-ribbed, 5-toothed, hairs generally strigose or appressed; corolla 4--5-lobed, generally +- radial, sometimes bilateral and 2-lipped; stamens 4; ovary 4-chambered, ovules 4, style 1, lobes 2, 1 tooth-like, 1 with +- spheric stigma. Fruit: nutlets 4, generally oblong.
Species In Genus: +- 250 species: temperate, tropical America, Mediterranean Europe. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name) Note: Verbena gooddingii, Verbena pulchella often placed in Glandularia (sister to Verbena in strictest sense).

Verbena litoralis Kunth
Habit: Biennial or perennial herb, 40--150+ cm. Stem: 1--few, erect, glabrous to sparsely short-bristly; angles smooth to scabrous. Leaf: 3--10 cm, elliptic to lanceolate, irregularly serrate, sparsely short-bristly, base +- acute; petiole generally 0. Inflorescence: spikes (1)3--11 per cluster, in fruit 3--7 cm, 3--4 mm diam, dense to open proximally (fruits overlapping or not); flower bract 3--3.5 mm. Flower: calyx 3--3.5 mm; corolla 4--5.5 mm, violet to +- purple. Fruit: 1--1.5 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=28,56.
Ecology: Disturbed places, fields; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: n&c SNF, ScV, n SnJV; Distribution Outside California: to southern United States, Pacific; native to Central America, South America. Flowering Time: May--Oct
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken
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Citation for this treatment: Dieter H. Wilken 2016. Verbena litoralis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 27, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 27, 2016.

Verbena litoralis
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling
Verbena litoralis
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling

More photos of Verbena litoralis in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Verbena litoralis:
n&c SNF, ScV, n SnJV;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.