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Verbena californica
RED HILLS VERVAIN

Higher Taxonomy
Family: VerbenaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VERVAIN FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub [tree], generally hairy. Leaf: cauline, opposite, generally toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or head, generally elongated in fruit; bract generally 1 per flower. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally 4--5-toothed; corolla 4--5-lobed, radial to bilateral, salverform to 2-lipped; stamens 4--5 (if 4, generally in unequal pairs), epipetalous; ovary superior, 2- or 4-lobed, generally 2- chambered, style 1, often with 2 unequal lobes, only 1 stigmatic, lateral. Fruit: 2 or 4 nutlets, drupe-like, or capsule.
Genera In Family: +- 31 genera, +- 920 species: especially America tropics. Some cultivated (Lantana, Verbena, Vitex); some weedy worldwide (Lantana); some used for wood (Tectona, teak). Avicennia included in Acanthaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: VerbenaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VERVAIN
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: often 4-angled; hairs generally short, stiff. Leaf: reduced distally on stem; blade entire to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: spike, often in panicle-like clusters, generally terminal, generally elongated in fruit. Flower: calyx 5-ribbed, 5-toothed, hairs generally strigose or appressed; corolla 4--5-lobed, generally +- radial, sometimes bilateral and 2-lipped; stamens 4; ovary 4-chambered, ovules 4, style 1, lobes 2, 1 tooth-like, 1 with +- spheric stigma. Fruit: nutlets 4, generally oblong.
Species In Genus: +- 250 species: temperate, tropical America, Mediterranean Europe. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name) Note: Verbena gooddingii, Verbena pulchella often placed in Glandularia (sister to Verbena in strictest sense).

Verbena californica Moldenke
NATIVE
Habit: Biennial or perennial herb, 30--75 cm. Stem: generally 1--3, decumbent to erect, +- canescent. Leaf: sessile or +- clasping, 2--9 cm, elliptic to oblanceolate, entire to irregularly and obtusely toothed, +- canescent, tapered to truncate base. Inflorescence: spikes 1--5 per cluster, in fruit 10--24 cm, 5--10 mm diam, open (fruits not overlapping); flower bract 3.5--4 mm. Flower: calyx 4--4.5 mm; corolla 2.5--3.5 mm, violet to +- purple. Fruit: +- 2 mm.
Ecology: Wet places, seeps, generally serpentine soils, pine/oak woodland; Elevation: 300--400 m. Bioregional Distribution: c SNF (Tuolumne Co.). Flowering Time: May--Sep
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Verbena bracteata
Next taxon: Verbena gooddingii

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botanical illustration including Verbena californica

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Citation for this treatment: Dieter H. Wilken 2016. Verbena californica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47890, accessed on May 25, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 25, 2016.


Verbena californica
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Verbena californica
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Verbena californica
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Verbena californica
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling

More photos of Verbena californica in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Verbena californica:
c SNF (Tuolumne Co.).
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.