Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Verbena bracteata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: VerbenaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to shrub [tree], generally hairy. Leaf: cauline, opposite, generally toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or head, generally elongated in fruit; bract generally 1 per flower. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally 4--5-toothed; corolla 4--5-lobed, radial to bilateral, salverform to 2-lipped; stamens 4--5 (if 4, generally in unequal pairs), epipetalous; ovary superior, 2- or 4-lobed, generally 2- chambered, style 1, often with 2 unequal lobes, only 1 stigmatic, lateral. Fruit: 2 or 4 nutlets, drupe-like, or capsule.
Genera In Family: +- 31 genera, +- 920 species: especially America tropics. Some cultivated (Lantana, Verbena, Vitex); some weedy worldwide (Lantana); some used for wood (Tectona, teak). Avicennia included in Acanthaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: VerbenaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VERVAIN
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: often 4-angled; hairs generally short, stiff. Leaf: reduced distally on stem; blade entire to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: spike, often in panicle-like clusters, generally terminal, generally elongated in fruit. Flower: calyx 5-ribbed, 5-toothed, hairs generally strigose or appressed; corolla 4--5-lobed, generally +- radial, sometimes bilateral and 2-lipped; stamens 4; ovary 4-chambered, ovules 4, style 1, lobes 2, 1 tooth-like, 1 with +- spheric stigma. Fruit: nutlets 4, generally oblong.
Species In Genus: +- 250 species: temperate, tropical America, Mediterranean Europe. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name) Note: Verbena gooddingii, Verbena pulchella often placed in Glandularia (sister to Verbena in strictest sense).

Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr.
Habit: Annual or biennial, 8--30 cm. Stem: few to many from base, prostrate to decumbent; hairs sparse, spreading. Leaf: 1--3(6) cm, +- oblanceolate, coarsely serrate to lobed, rough-hairy; base tapered to +- flat petiole. Inflorescence: spikes 1--3 per stem branch, in fruit 2--10 cm, 6--10 mm diam, generally dense; flower bract 4--8 mm. Flower: calyx 2--4 mm; corolla 4--5 mm, white to lavender or blue. Fruit: 1--2 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Open, disturbed places, pond or lake margins; Elevation: < 2200 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaR, GV, SCoR, SW, GB, D; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, eastern North America, northern Mexico. Flowering Time: May--Oct
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Verbena bonariensis
Next taxon: Verbena californica

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botanical illustration including Verbena bracteata


Citation for this treatment: Dieter H. Wilken 2017. Verbena bracteata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 18, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 18, 2017.

Verbena bracteata
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Verbena bracteata
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Verbena bracteata
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© 2016 Keir Morse
Verbena bracteata
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© 2011 Neal Kramer
Verbena bracteata
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© 2004 James M. Andre
Verbena bracteata
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© 2016 Keir Morse

More photos of Verbena bracteata in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Verbena bracteata:
CaR, GV, SCoR, SW, GB, D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.