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Verbena bonariensis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: VerbenaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VERVAIN FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub [tree], generally hairy. Leaf: cauline, opposite, generally toothed; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or head, generally elongated in fruit; bract generally 1 per flower. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally 4--5-toothed; corolla 4--5-lobed, radial to bilateral, salverform to 2-lipped; stamens 4--5 (if 4, generally in unequal pairs), epipetalous; ovary superior, 2- or 4-lobed, generally 2- chambered, style 1, often with 2 unequal lobes, only 1 stigmatic, lateral. Fruit: 2 or 4 nutlets, drupe-like, or capsule.
Genera In Family: +- 31 genera, +- 920 species: especially America tropics. Some cultivated (Lantana, Verbena, Vitex); some weedy worldwide (Lantana); some used for wood (Tectona, teak). Avicennia included in Acanthaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: VerbenaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: VERVAIN
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: often 4-angled; hairs generally short, stiff. Leaf: reduced distally on stem; blade entire to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: spike, often in panicle-like clusters, generally terminal, generally elongated in fruit. Flower: calyx 5-ribbed, 5-toothed, hairs generally strigose or appressed; corolla 4--5-lobed, generally +- radial, sometimes bilateral and 2-lipped; stamens 4; ovary 4-chambered, ovules 4, style 1, lobes 2, 1 tooth-like, 1 with +- spheric stigma. Fruit: nutlets 4, generally oblong.
Species In Genus: +- 250 species: temperate, tropical America, Mediterranean Europe. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name) Note: Verbena gooddingii, Verbena pulchella often placed in Glandularia (sister to Verbena in strictest sense).

Verbena bonariensis L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual or biennial, 50--150+ cm. Stem: 1--few, erect, glabrous to sparsely rough-hairy, angles smooth to scabrous. Leaf: generally clasping, 7--15 cm, elliptic to lanceolate, coarsely serrate, scabrous, base cordate to truncate. Inflorescence: spikes (3)8--17 per cluster, spike in fruit 15--125 mm, +- 5--6 mm diam, dense; flower bract 3--3.5 mm. Flower: calyx 3--3.5 mm; corolla 5--6 mm, white or +- purple. Fruit: 1--1.5 mm.
Ecology: Disturbed, often wet places, fields; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: s ScV, n SnJV, n SnFrB; Distribution Outside California: to southern United States; native to South America. Flowering Time: Jun--Oct
Synonyms: Verbena bonariensis var. bonariensis; Verbena bonariensis var. conglomerata Briq.; Verbena incompta P.W. Michael
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken
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Previous taxon: Verbena
Next taxon: Verbena bracteata

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botanical illustration including Verbena bonariensis

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Citation for this treatment: Dieter H. Wilken 2016. Verbena bonariensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47885, accessed on May 03, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 03, 2016.


Verbena bonariensis
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© 2009 Barry Rice
Verbena bonariensis
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© 2015 Barry Breckling
Verbena bonariensis
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© 2015 Barry Breckling

More photos of Verbena bonariensis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Verbena bonariensis:
s ScV, n SnJV, n SnFrB;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.