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Vascular Plants of California
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Ventenata dubia
NORTH AFRICA GRASS


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: VentenataView Description 


Habit: Annual, tufted. Stem: ascending to erect, 10--75 cm. Leaf: sheath, blade glabrous to +- hairy; ligule membranous, generally acute. Inflorescence: panicle-like, open or dense. Spikelet: bisexual, compressed; glumes unequal, < lemma, lower glume 3--7-veined, upper 3--9-veined; axis breaking above lower floret and between distal florets; florets 2--10; lemma +- leathery, lemma of lower florets short-awned or not; uppermost awned from back, awn bent.
Species In Genus: 5 species: southern Europe, northern Africa, western Asia. Etymology: (E.P. Ventenat, French clergyman, botanist, 1757--1808)
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Reference: Crins 2007 FNANM 24:683--684
Unabridged Reference: Chambers 1985 Madroño 32:120--121
Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss.
NATURALIZED
Stem: nodes purple-black, puberulent below nodes. Leaf: ligule 1--8 mm; blade 2--7(12) cm, 1--3 mm wide, rolled under with age. Inflorescence: generally 15--20 cm, open; branches spreading to drooping; spikelets near branch tips, stalked. Spikelet: 10--15 mm; glumes lanceolate, acuminate, lower 4.5--6 mm, 3--7-veined, upper 6--8 mm, 3--9-veined; florets 2 or 3, lowest generally staminate, lemma awn straight when present; upper 1 or 2 florets bisexual, lemma awn 1--1.5 cm. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Dry, open disturbed sites; Elevation: 500--1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRH (Lake Co.), CaRH, n SNH (Nevada Co.), MP; Distribution Outside California: to Canada, northeastern United States; native to central and southern Europe. Flowering Time: Jun--Sep Note: Mature specimens generally retain 1 floret after upper florets have broken away, which can lead to misinterpretation of the spikelet.
Jepson eFlora Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
Reference: Crins 2007 FNANM 24:683--684
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2012, Ventenata dubia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=47815, accessed on December 11, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on December 11, 2019.

Ventenata dubia
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Ventenata dubia
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Ventenata dubia
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Ventenata dubia
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Ventenata dubia
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Ventenata dubia
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson

More photos of Ventenata dubia in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Ventenata dubia:
KR, NCoRH (Lake Co.), CaRH, n SNH (Nevada Co.), MP
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.