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Umbellularia californica

Higher Taxonomy
Family: LauraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: LAUREL FAMILY
Habit: [Shrub], tree, [parasitic vine], generally evergreen, aromatic; [dioecious or +- so]. Leaf: generally alternate, simple, unlobed [(lobed)], entire, generally thick; stipules 0. Inflorescence: [(flowers 1, head), raceme, panicle], umbel-like, enclosed by bracts [or not]. Flower: generally bisexual, generally +- yellow to +- green; hypanthium often calyx-tube-like, perianth parts in 2(3) whorls of 3, +- sepal-like; stamens [(3)]9[(12)], in whorls of 3, inner often with 2 stalked orange glands at base, 1 [or more] whorls often staminodes [or not], anthers [2] 4-celled, opening by uplifting valves; pistil 1, simple, ovary generally superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 1, very short. Fruit: +- berry, often with swollen hypanthium, sepals.
Genera In Family: +- 54 genera, +- 3500 species: widespread in tropics, less so in temperate; some cultivated (Laurus, laurel, bay; Persea, avocado; Cinnamomum, cinnamon, camphor).
eFlora Treatment Author: Henk van der Werff
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: UmbellulariaView Description 

Common Name: CALIFORNIA BAY, CALIFORNIA LAUREL, PEPPERWOOD

Species In Genus: 1 sp.: western North America. Etymology: (Latin: partial umbel, from inflorescence)

Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.
NATIVE
Stem: < 45 m, bark +- green to red-brown. Leaf: 3--10 cm, 1.5--3 cm wide, narrowly ovate to oblong, shiny, generally deep yellow-green, minute-gland-dotted, abaxially glabrous, sparse-appressed-hairy, or minute-gray-tomentose, adaxially glabrous; petiole < blade. Inflorescence: in upper axils, umbel-like, peduncled, 5--10-flowered, subtending bracts <= 7 mm. Flower: perianth parts 6, 3--4.5 mm, oblong-ovate; stamens 9, staminodes 3, < glands, anthers 4-celled. Fruit: generally 1, 2--2.5 cm, round-ovoid, +- green, dark purple when dry, olive-like. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Common. Canyons, valleys, chaparral; Elevation: < 1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaRF, SNF, SNH, ScV (Sutter Buttes), deltaic SnJV, CCo, SnFrB, SCoRO, SCoRI, SCo, scattered TR, PR; Distribution Outside California: southern Oregon. Flowering Time: Nov--May Note: Used in cooking, woodworking.
Synonyms: Umbellularia californica var. fresnensis Eastw.
Unabridged Note: Known as Oregon myrtle in Oregon; used in cooking, woodworking. To some humans, oils TOXIC, aroma overwhelming.
eFlora Treatment Author: Henk van der Werff
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Citation for this treatment: Henk van der Werff 2016. Umbellularia californica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47489, accessed on September 26, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on September 26, 2016.


Umbellularia californica
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© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Umbellularia californica
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Umbellularia californica
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© 2003 Michael Charters
Umbellularia californica
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© 2010 Thomas Stoughton
Umbellularia californica
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© 2004 Julie Kierstead Nelson
Umbellularia californica
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© 2009 Keir Morse

More photos of Umbellularia californica in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Umbellularia californica:
NW, CaRF, SNF, SNH, ScV (Sutter Buttes), deltaic SnJV, CCo, SnFrB, SCoRO, SCoRI, SCo, scattered TR, PR;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.