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Umbellularia californica

Higher Taxonomy
Family: LauraceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: LAUREL FAMILY
Habit: [Shrub], tree, [parasitic vine], generally evergreen, aromatic; [dioecious or +- so]. Leaf: generally alternate, simple, unlobed [(lobed)], entire, generally thick; stipules 0. Inflorescence: [(flowers 1, head), raceme, panicle], umbel-like, enclosed by bracts [or not]. Flower: generally bisexual, generally +- yellow to +- green; hypanthium often calyx-tube-like, perianth parts in 2(3) whorls of 3, +- sepal-like; stamens [(3)]9[(12)], in whorls of 3, inner often with 2 stalked orange glands at base, 1 [or more] whorls often staminodes [or not], anthers [2] 4-celled, opening by uplifting valves; pistil 1, simple, ovary generally superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style 1, very short. Fruit: +- berry, often with swollen hypanthium, sepals.
Genera In Family: +- 54 genera, +- 3500 species: widespread in tropics, less so in temperate; some cultivated (Laurus, laurel, bay; Persea, avocado; Cinnamomum, cinnamon, camphor).
eFlora Treatment Author: Henk van der Werff
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: UmbellulariaView Description 

Common Name: CALIFORNIA BAY, CALIFORNIA LAUREL, PEPPERWOOD

Species In Genus: 1 sp.: western North America. Etymology: (Latin: partial umbel, from inflorescence)

Umbellularia californica (Hook. & Arn.) Nutt.
NATIVE
Stem: < 45 m, bark +- green to red-brown. Leaf: 3--10 cm, 1.5--3 cm wide, narrowly ovate to oblong, shiny, generally deep yellow-green, minute-gland-dotted, abaxially glabrous, sparse-appressed-hairy, or minute-gray-tomentose, adaxially glabrous; petiole < blade. Inflorescence: in upper axils, umbel-like, peduncled, 5--10-flowered, subtending bracts <= 7 mm. Flower: perianth parts 6, 3--4.5 mm, oblong-ovate; stamens 9, staminodes 3, < glands, anthers 4-celled. Fruit: generally 1, 2--2.5 cm, round-ovoid, +- green, dark purple when dry, olive-like. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Common. Canyons, valleys, chaparral; Elevation: < 1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaRF, SNF, SNH, ScV (Sutter Buttes), deltaic SnJV, CCo, SnFrB, SCoRO, SCoRI, SCo, scattered TR, PR; Distribution Outside California: southern Oregon. Flowering Time: Nov--May Note: Used in cooking, woodworking.
Synonyms: Umbellularia californica var. fresnensis Eastw.
Unabridged Note: Known as Oregon myrtle in Oregon; used in cooking, woodworking. To some humans, oils TOXIC, aroma overwhelming.
eFlora Treatment Author: Henk van der Werff
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Citation for this treatment: Henk van der Werff 2016. Umbellularia californica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47489, accessed on May 05, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 05, 2016.


Umbellularia californica
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© 2010 Thomas Stoughton
Umbellularia californica
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© 2009 Thomas Stoughton
Umbellularia californica
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© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Umbellularia californica
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© 2006 George W. Hartwell
Umbellularia californica
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Umbellularia californica
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© 2009 Keir Morse

More photos of Umbellularia californica in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Umbellularia californica:
NW, CaRF, SNF, SNH, ScV (Sutter Buttes), deltaic SnJV, CCo, SnFrB, SCoRO, SCoRI, SCo, scattered TR, PR;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.