Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Ulmus pumila

Higher Taxonomy
Family: UlmaceaeView Description 

Common Name: ELM FAMILY
Habit: Tree. Leaf: simple, alternate, 2-ranked; veins pinnate; stipules deciduous. Flower: radial; sepals 4--9, free to fused; corolla 0; stamens 4--9, opposite sepals; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style branches 2. Fruit: 2-winged nutlet.
Genera In Family: 7 genera, +- 60 species: temperate to tropics; some cultivated for ornamental (Ulmus, Zelkova), used for wood (especially Ulmus). Note: Celtis moved to Cannabaceae.
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan T. Whittemore
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: UlmusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: ELM
Habit: Deciduous. Leaf: serrate (or doubly so), base generally oblique, 2° veins straight, parallel, extending to margin, each ending in a tooth; axils of 2° veins generally with prominent tufts of hairs. Inflorescence: umbels or short racemes in leaf axils on old wood; flowers sessile or pedicels 7--17 mm. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally bell-shaped, lobes 4--9; stamens 4--9, exserted; ovary strongly compressed; style divided to base, branches spreading.
Species In Genus: +- 40 species: northern temperate. Note: Widely cultivated as street trees; flowers, fruit needed for identification.

Ulmus pumila L.
Habit: To 25 m; bark deeply ridged, remaining firmly attached, medium gray. Stem: corky outgrowths on branches 0; winter buds dark brown or red-brown, +- spheric to ovoid; inner bud scale margins generally white ciliate. Leaf: 2--8 cm, 1.2--3.5 cm wide, ovate- to lance-elliptic, acute or short-acuminate (acuminate), margins simply or doubly serrate, abaxial surface glabrous or pubescent only on major veins and tufted in vein axils. Inflorescence: flower, fruit before leaves in spring; pedicel +- 0. Fruit: 1--2 cm, 1--1.5 cm wide, +- round (broadly obovate or elliptic), +- white-tan, glabrous except for pubescence on stigmatic surface in notch.
Ecology: Streambanks, washes, bottomland, roadsides, disturbed areas; Elevation: 20--1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: SN, SW, GB; Distribution Outside California: native to northern Asia. Flowering Time: Mar--Apr
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan T. Whittemore
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botanical illustration including Ulmus pumila


Citation for this treatment: Alan T. Whittemore 2016. Ulmus pumila, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 04, 2016.

Ulmus pumila
click for enlargement
© 2015 Steve Matson
Ulmus pumila
click for enlargement
© 2015 Steve Matson
Ulmus pumila
click for enlargement
© 2015 Steve Matson
Ulmus pumila
click for enlargement
© 2015 Steve Matson

More photos of Ulmus pumila in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Ulmus pumila:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.