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Typha domingensis
SOUTHERN CATTAIL

Higher Taxonomy
Family: TyphaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CATTAIL FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, glabrous; monoecious; rhizomes or stolons long; colonial, in wet soil to aquatic. Stem: aerial stem 1, +- cylindric. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, 2-ranked, spongy; sheath open; ligule 0; blade +- linear. Inflorescence: spike-like or of spheric, unisexual heads; staminate flowers or heads distal to pistillate ones. Flower: small, densely-packed. Staminate Flower: filaments fused proximally. Pistillate Flower: pistil 1, ovary superior, ovules 1--2(4). Fruit: follicle, splitting in water, or drupe-like.
Genera In Family: 2 genera, +- 32 species: worldwide.
eFlora Treatment Author: S. Galen Smith
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: TyphaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CATTAIL
Stem: erect, simple, cylindric, firm, air cavities 0. Leaf: ascending; blade C-shaped or planoconvex in ×-section proximally, flat distally, internal air cavities large; sheath-tip lobes present or not. Inflorescence: terminal; flowers 1000+; staminate flowers distal, mixed with many papery scales; pistillate flowers proximal, clustered on peg-like compound pedicels; bractlets many, thread-like with enlarged tips generally visible at spike surface, or 0. Staminate Flower: stamens 2--7 on slender stalk; filaments slender, generally deciduous in fruit. Pistillate Flower: stalk long-hairy, persistent; ovary chambers 1, style 1, persistent, stigma 1; many modified pistils with enlarged sterile ovary, style deciduous. Fruit: fusiform, thin-walled, yellow-brown, wind-dispersed.
Species In Genus: +- 15 species: boreal to tropics worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: to smoke or emit smoke) Note: Dissecting microscope ideal for Typha identification (flower structures small), which is complicated by hybridization.
Unabridged Note: Typha angustifolia × Typha latifolia (Typha × glauca Godr., pro sp.) and Typha domingensis × Typha latifolia (Typha × provincialis A. Camus) are generally highly sterile and intermediate between parents in most characters. Typha angustifolia × Typha domingensis are generally highly fertile, thus species boundaries are locally obscure. Hybrids involving 3 species are locally common. Although putative hybrids may produce no or few seeds they generally form long-persistent clones.

Typha domingensis Pers.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 15--40 dm. Stem: 3--4 mm diam near inflorescence. Leaf: sheath-tip lobes ear-like, membranous or 0; widest fresh blades 6--18 mm wide, dry 5--15 mm wide, orange-brown gland-dotted adaxially on proximal 1--10 cm. Inflorescence: naked stem between staminate, pistillate flowers (0)1--8 cm; staminate scales generally strap-like, tips widened, generally irregularly dissected, yellow-brown; pistillate spike cinnamon to medium brown; compound pedicels short, +- blunt, peg-like in fruit, +- 0.7 mm; pistillate bractlets acute to acuminate, length > pistillate flower hairs, width >= stigma width, straw-colored to light brown, generally paler than stigma. Flower: pollen grains single; stigma linear, +- white in flower, medium- to yellow-brown in fruit; sterile ovary visible at spike surface, +- = pistil hair tips, straw-colored; pistil hair tips +- swollen, straw-colored with large orange-brown spot. Chromosomes: 2n=30.
Ecology: Nutrient-rich freshwater to brackish marshes, wet disturbed places; Elevation: < 1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoRO, GV, CW, SW, GB, D; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, eastern North America, worldwide warm temperate, tropics. Flowering Time: Jun--Jul Note: Very variable worldwide; needs study.
Unabridged Note: Plants in southern California are generally small, with lobed leaf-sheath tips. Occasional invasive weed in nutrient-rich places, e.g., in Florida Everglades, Costa Rica.
eFlora Treatment Author: S. Galen Smith
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Previous taxon: Typha angustifolia
Next taxon: Typha latifolia

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Citation for this treatment: S. Galen Smith 2016. Typha domingensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47463, accessed on December 03, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 03, 2016.


Typha domingensis
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© 2015 Keir Morse
Typha domingensis
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Typha domingensis
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Typha domingensis
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© 2013 Neal Kramer
Typha domingensis
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Typha domingensis
click for enlargement
© 2013 Neal Kramer

More photos of Typha domingensis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Typha domingensis:
NCo, NCoRO, GV, CW, SW, GB, D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.