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Typha domingensis
SOUTHERN CATTAIL

Higher Taxonomy
Family: TyphaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CATTAIL FAMILY
Habit: Perennial herb, glabrous; monoecious; rhizomes or stolons long; colonial, in wet soil to aquatic. Stem: aerial stem 1, +- cylindric. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, 2-ranked, spongy; sheath open; ligule 0; blade +- linear. Inflorescence: spike-like or of spheric, unisexual heads; staminate flowers or heads distal to pistillate ones. Flower: small, densely-packed. Staminate Flower: filaments fused proximally. Pistillate Flower: pistil 1, ovary superior, ovules 1--2(4). Fruit: follicle, splitting in water, or drupe-like.
Genera In Family: 2 genera, +- 32 species: worldwide.
eFlora Treatment Author: S. Galen Smith
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: TyphaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CATTAIL
Stem: erect, simple, cylindric, firm, air cavities 0. Leaf: ascending; blade C-shaped or planoconvex in ×-section proximally, flat distally, internal air cavities large; sheath-tip lobes present or not. Inflorescence: terminal; flowers 1000+; staminate flowers distal, mixed with many papery scales; pistillate flowers proximal, clustered on peg-like compound pedicels; bractlets many, thread-like with enlarged tips generally visible at spike surface, or 0. Staminate Flower: stamens 2--7 on slender stalk; filaments slender, generally deciduous in fruit. Pistillate Flower: stalk long-hairy, persistent; ovary chambers 1, style 1, persistent, stigma 1; many modified pistils with enlarged sterile ovary, style deciduous. Fruit: fusiform, thin-walled, yellow-brown, wind-dispersed.
Species In Genus: +- 15 species: boreal to tropics worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: to smoke or emit smoke) Note: Dissecting microscope ideal for Typha identification (flower structures small), which is complicated by hybridization.
Unabridged Note: Typha angustifolia × Typha latifolia (Typha × glauca Godr., pro sp.) and Typha domingensis × Typha latifolia (Typha × provincialis A. Camus) are generally highly sterile and intermediate between parents in most characters. Typha angustifolia × Typha domingensis are generally highly fertile, thus species boundaries are locally obscure. Hybrids involving 3 species are locally common. Although putative hybrids may produce no or few seeds they generally form long-persistent clones.

Typha domingensis Pers.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant 15--40 dm. Stem: 3--4 mm diam near inflorescence. Leaf: sheath-tip lobes ear-like, membranous or 0; widest fresh blades 6--18 mm wide, dry 5--15 mm wide, orange-brown gland-dotted adaxially on proximal 1--10 cm. Inflorescence: naked stem between staminate, pistillate flowers (0)1--8 cm; staminate scales generally strap-like, tips widened, generally irregularly dissected, yellow-brown; pistillate spike cinnamon to medium brown; compound pedicels short, +- blunt, peg-like in fruit, +- 0.7 mm; pistillate bractlets acute to acuminate, length > pistillate flower hairs, width >= stigma width, straw-colored to light brown, generally paler than stigma. Flower: pollen grains single; stigma linear, +- white in flower, medium- to yellow-brown in fruit; sterile ovary visible at spike surface, +- = pistil hair tips, straw-colored; pistil hair tips +- swollen, straw-colored with large orange-brown spot. Chromosomes: 2n=30.
Ecology: Nutrient-rich freshwater to brackish marshes, wet disturbed places; Elevation: < 1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoRO, GV, CW, SW, GB, D; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, eastern North America, worldwide warm temperate, tropics. Flowering Time: Jun--Jul Note: Very variable worldwide; needs study.
Unabridged Note: Plants in southern California are generally small, with lobed leaf-sheath tips. Occasional invasive weed in nutrient-rich places, e.g., in Florida Everglades, Costa Rica.
eFlora Treatment Author: S. Galen Smith
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Previous taxon: Typha angustifolia
Next taxon: Typha latifolia

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Citation for this treatment: S. Galen Smith 2016. Typha domingensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47463, accessed on February 05, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 05, 2016.


Typha domingensis
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© 2013 Neal Kramer
Typha domingensis
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Typha domingensis
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© 2015 Neal Kramer
Typha domingensis
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© 2014 Neal Kramer
Typha domingensis
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Typha domingensis
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© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Typha domingensis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Typha domingensis:
NCo, NCoRO, GV, CW, SW, GB, D;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.