Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Tsuga mertensiana
MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PinaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PINE FAMILY
Habit: Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing +- 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen Cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed Cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
Genera In Family: 10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber.
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: TsugaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: HEMLOCK
Stem: crown conic, top slender, generally nodding; branches +- drooping; bark red-brown; twig with persistent, peg-like leaf bases, hairy or puberulent; bud ovoid. Leaf: 5--25 mm, tapered to a short petiole above persistent base, spreading, +- 2-ranked or not, +- flat, grooved adaxially or not, ridged abaxially. Seed Cone: pendent, 1.2--7.5 cm, ovoid to oblong, opening 1st year; stalk +- 0; bract included, free from scale. Seed: plus wing < 2 cm. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Species In Genus: 10 species: northern hemisphere. Etymology: (Japanese: hemlock)

Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière
NATIVE
Stem: trunk < 35 m, 2.2 m wide, prostrate at timberline; mature bark red- or purple-brown, with narrow grooves between narrow ridges; twig puberulent. Leaf: 10--25 mm, persistent < 7 years, tip rounded.
Ecology: Subalpine, some scattered in cold areas of red-fir, mixed-conifer forest; Elevation: 1200--3500 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRH, CaRH, SNH, MP, n SNE; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, Montana.
eFlora Treatment Author: J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin
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Citation for this treatment: J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin 2016. Tsuga mertensiana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47424, accessed on February 13, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 13, 2016.


Tsuga mertensiana
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© 2008 Neal Kramer
Tsuga mertensiana
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© 2007 California Academy of Sciences
Tsuga mertensiana
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© 2007 Neal Kramer
Tsuga mertensiana
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© 2010 Keir Morse
Tsuga mertensiana
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© 2015 Neal Kramer
Tsuga mertensiana
click for enlargement
© 2015 Neal Kramer

More photos of Tsuga mertensiana in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Tsuga mertensiana:
KR, NCoRH, CaRH, SNH, MP, n SNE;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.