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Tropaeolum majus

Higher Taxonomy
Family: TropaeolaceaeView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb, +- fleshy, generally +- glabrous; often twining by petioles; roots tuber-like or not. Stem: prostrate. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, peltate [(or not)]; blade << petiole, entire, toothed, lobed, or dissected, veins generally palmate; stipules often 0. Inflorescence: flower generally 1 on long, axillary pedicel. Flower: showy, bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, uppermost (adaxial) generally long-spurred; petals generally 5, clawed, upper 2 unlike lower 3; stamens 8, in 2 whorls, unequal; ovary superior, lobes 3, chambers 3, placentas axile, style 1, >> ovary, 3-parted near tip, stigmas 3. Fruit: separating into 3 generally nut-like, 1-seeded segments (= mericarps).
Genera In Family: 1 genus, +- 90 species: Mexico to South America; some cultivated.
Unabridged Note: 2 additional stamens opposite petals +- abortive.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Elizabeth McClintock
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: TropaeolumView Description 

Etymology: (Greek: trophy, from shield-like leaves)

Tropaeolum majus L.
Stem: > 1 m. Leaf: petiole 5--25 cm; blade 3--12 cm wide, round to +- reniform, veins palmate. Inflorescence: peduncle < 20 cm. Flower: 2.5--6 cm diam; sepals > 2 cm, +- ovate, +- tan, nectar spur > 3 cm; petals > 4.5 cm, generally orange or yellow with +- orange marks, claws of lower 3 > 1.5 cm, fringed near top. Fruit: > 1.5 cm, > 2 cm wide; segments broadly ovate, deeply lobed.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, moist or shaded areas in coastal scrub, wooded flats or slopes; Elevation: < 450 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, CCo, SnFrB, SCo, s ChI; Distribution Outside California: Abundantly cultivated, often naturalized. Flowering Time: Mar--Jun Note: Originated in cultivation.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Elizabeth McClintock
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Citation for this treatment: Robert E. Preston & Elizabeth McClintock 2017. Tropaeolum majus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 20, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on October 20, 2017.

Tropaeolum majus
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Tropaeolum majus
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Tropaeolum majus
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Tropaeolum majus
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer

More photos of Tropaeolum majus in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Tropaeolum majus:
NCo, CCo, SnFrB, SCo, s ChI;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.