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Trisetum spicatum
SPIKE FALSE OAT

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: TrisetumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, perennial herb. Stem: ascending to erect, generally clumped. Leaf: generally basal and cauline; ligule membranous, obtuse to truncate, toothed, tip ciliate or not; blade flat to inrolled. Inflorescence: panicle- to spike-like, open to compact, cylindric to narrowly conic. Spikelet: glumes +- unequal, generally <= lower floret, keeled, acute, lower 1-veined, upper 3-veined; axis stiff- to soft-hairy, generally prolonged behind upper floret, bristly or with vestigial floret; florets 2--3, bisexual, breaking above glumes and between florets (sometimes below glumes); callus short-hairy; lemma +- keeled, tip 2-bristled or not, awned on back near tip or not, awn straight or wavy to bent; palea = or < lemma; ovary glabrous or with short, stiff hairs at tip.
Species In Genus: 70--75 species: worldwide (except Africa) temperate, subarctic, alpine. Etymology: (Latin: 3 bristles, from its 3-awned lemma) Note: Some species intergrade; needs study in western North America. Trisetum flavescens (L.) P. Beauv. extirpated, last collected in California 1917.
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Dieter H. Wilken

Trisetum spicatum (L.) K. Richt.
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: 0.5--4 dm, densely clumped. Leaf: mostly basal, tufted, glabrous or densely soft-hairy; ligule 1--3 mm; cauline blade generally 1--4 mm wide. Inflorescence: spike-like, 2.5--7(10) cm, dense, cylindric to narrowly elliptic in outline; lower branches erect, +- appressed; axis hairy, hidden by spikelets. Spikelet: on branches from base to tip, purple-tinged (including awns); glumes lanceolate, acute, lower 2--4 mm, upper 4--5 mm; lemma 2--3 mm, awn 4--8 mm, often bent near base. Chromosomes: 2n=14,28,42.
Ecology: Dry to moist sites, meadows, streambanks, rock outcrops, open areas in conifer forest, sagebrush scrub; Elevation: 1370--3900 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaRH, SNH, SnGb, SnBr, SnJt, Wrn, n SNE, W&I; Distribution Outside California: worldwide (except Africa), temperate. Flowering Time: Jul--Aug Note: Highly variable, with much ecological variation; many infraspecific taxa described, not universally accepted.
Synonyms: Trisetum montanum Vasey; Trisetum spicatum var. spicatum
eFlora Treatment Author: Robert E. Preston & Dieter H. Wilken
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Citation for this treatment: Robert E. Preston & Dieter H. Wilken 2016. Trisetum spicatum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47338, accessed on July 24, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 24, 2016.


Trisetum spicatum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Trisetum spicatum
click for enlargement
© 2003 Steve Matson
Trisetum spicatum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Trisetum spicatum
click for enlargement
© 2002 Steve Matson
Trisetum spicatum
click for enlargement
© 2004 Steve Matson
Trisetum spicatum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson

More photos of Trisetum spicatum in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Trisetum spicatum:
KR, CaRH, SNH, SnGb, SnBr, SnJt, Wrn, n SNE, W&I;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.