Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Triodanis biflora

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CampanulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, +- fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or +- fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1--3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2--5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 2500 species: worldwide. Note: Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy R. Morin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: TriodanisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual; roots fibrous; hairs sparse, stiff, reflexed. Stem: erect, generally 5--40 cm, 4-angled, branches from base or 0. Leaf: cauline, thin, serrate, sessile except lowest +- short-petioled. Inflorescence: flowers 1--several in axils of bracts, sessile. Flower: lower cleistogamous; sepals spreading, narrowly triangular, not leaf-like; corolla rotate, lobes deep blue to blue-violet; stamen base wide, ciliate; ovary inferior, elliptic to obovoid, distal 50% papillate. Fruit: opening by lateral pores. Seed: +- 0.5 mm, widely elliptic.
Species In Genus: 7--8 species: North America, 1 Mediterranean. Etymology: (Greek: 3 teeth)

Triodanis biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Greene
Leaf: 5--15 mm, abaxial veins inconspicuous, tip acute. Flower: open in upper 1--3 bract axils; corolla 5--9 mm, lobes 4--7 mm; stamens +- 2.5 mm; ovary 4.5--7 mm, style 3--3.5 mm. Fruit: pores near top.
Ecology: Disturbed areas; Elevation: < 2000 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP (exc CaR); Distribution Outside California: to central and southern United States, South America. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy R. Morin
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botanical illustration including Triodanis biflora


Citation for this treatment: Nancy R. Morin 2016. Triodanis biflora, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 05, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on May 05, 2016.

Triodanis biflora
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© 2015 Aaron Schusteff
Triodanis biflora
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© 2012 Aaron Schusteff
Triodanis biflora
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© 2007 Neal Kramer
Triodanis biflora
click for enlargement
© 2015 Aaron Schusteff
Triodanis biflora
click for enlargement
© 2011 Aaron Schusteff
Triodanis biflora
click for enlargement
© 2011 Aaron Schusteff

More photos of Triodanis biflora in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Triodanis biflora:
CA-FP (exc CaR);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.