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    Vascular Plants of California
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Triodanis biflora

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CampanulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, +- fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or +- fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1--3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2--5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 2500 species: worldwide. Note: Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy R. Morin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: TriodanisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual; roots fibrous; hairs sparse, stiff, reflexed. Stem: erect, generally 5--40 cm, 4-angled, branches from base or 0. Leaf: cauline, thin, serrate, sessile except lowest +- short-petioled. Inflorescence: flowers 1--several in axils of bracts, sessile. Flower: lower cleistogamous; sepals spreading, narrowly triangular, not leaf-like; corolla rotate, lobes deep blue to blue-violet; stamen base wide, ciliate; ovary inferior, elliptic to obovoid, distal 50% papillate. Fruit: opening by lateral pores. Seed: +- 0.5 mm, widely elliptic.
Species In Genus: 7--8 species: North America, 1 Mediterranean. Etymology: (Greek: 3 teeth)
Unabridged Reference: McVaugh 1945 Wrightia 1:13--52

Triodanis biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Greene
Leaf: 5--15 mm, abaxial veins inconspicuous, tip acute. Flower: open in upper 1--3 bract axils; corolla 5--9 mm, lobes 4--7 mm; stamens +- 2.5 mm; ovary 4.5--7 mm, style 3--3.5 mm. Fruit: pores near top.
Ecology: Disturbed areas; Elevation: < 2000 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP (exc CaR); Distribution Outside California: to central and southern United States, South America. Flowering Time: Apr--Jun
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy R. Morin
Unabridged Reference: McVaugh 1945 Wrightia 1:13--52
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botanical illustration including Triodanis biflora


Citation for this treatment: Nancy R. Morin 2012, Triodanis biflora, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 23, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 23, 2018.

Triodanis biflora
click for enlargement
© 2011 Aaron Schusteff
Triodanis biflora
click for enlargement
© 2012 Aaron Schusteff
Triodanis biflora
click for enlargement
© 2011 Aaron Schusteff
Triodanis biflora
click for enlargement
© 2011 Aaron Schusteff
Triodanis biflora
click for enlargement
© 2015 Aaron Schusteff
Triodanis biflora
click for enlargement
© 2007 Neal Kramer

More photos of Triodanis biflora in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Triodanis biflora:
CA-FP (exc CaR);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.