Jepson eFlora: Taxon page    
    Vascular Plants of California
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Triodanis perfoliata

Higher Taxonomy
Family: CampanulaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb [tree]. Leaf: generally cauline, generally simple, generally alternate, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, raceme, spike, or flowers 1; terminal or in axils of leaf-like or reduced bracts. Flower: bisexual, cleistogamous or open, radial or bilateral, inverted (pedicel twisted 180°) or not; hypanthium generally present, +- fused to ovary; sepals generally 5; corolla radial to 2-lipped, petals generally fused, tube deeply divided on 1 side or not, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, free or +- fused (anthers, filaments fused into tube or filaments fused above middle); ovary inferior or 1/2 inferior (superior in fruit), chambers 1--3, placentas axile or parietal, ovules many, style generally 1, 2--5-branched. Fruit: generally capsule, open on sides or top by pores or short valves. Seed: many.
Genera In Family: +- 90 genera, +- 2500 species: worldwide. Note: Some cultivated for ornamental (Campanula, Jasione, Lobelia). Subfamilies sometimes treated as families. Positions of flower parts given after flowering inversion, if any. Parishella moved to Nemacladus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy R. Morin, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: TriodanisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual; roots fibrous; hairs sparse, stiff, reflexed. Stem: erect, generally 5--40 cm, 4-angled, branches from base or 0. Leaf: cauline, thin, serrate, sessile except lowest +- short-petioled. Inflorescence: flowers 1--several in axils of bracts, sessile. Flower: lower cleistogamous; sepals spreading, narrowly triangular, not leaf-like; corolla rotate, lobes deep blue to blue-violet; stamen base wide, ciliate; ovary inferior, elliptic to obovoid, distal 50% papillate. Fruit: opening by lateral pores. Seed: +- 0.5 mm, widely elliptic.
Species In Genus: 7--8 species: North America, 1 Mediterranean. Etymology: (Greek: 3 teeth)
Unabridged Reference: McVaugh 1945 Wrightia 1:13--52

Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl.
Leaf: generally 8--11 mm, abaxial veins conspicuous, tip blunt. Flower: open in upper >> 3 bract axils; corolla 8--10 mm, lobes 6--8 mm; stamens 3.5 mm; ovary 5--10 mm, style 4.5 mm. Fruit: pores near or below middle.
Ecology: Disturbed areas; Elevation: < +- 1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, n SNH (Plumas Co.), ScV (Sutter Buttes), SW (uncommon); Distribution Outside California: to eastern United States, South America. Flowering Time: Jun--Jul
eFlora Treatment Author: Nancy R. Morin
Unabridged Reference: McVaugh 1945 Wrightia 1:13--52
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Triodanis biflora
Next taxon: Cannabaceae

Name Search
botanical illustration including Triodanis perfoliata


Citation for this treatment: Nancy R. Morin 2012, Triodanis perfoliata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 19, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on July 19, 2018.

Triodanis perfoliata var. perfoliata
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Triodanis perfoliata var. perfoliata
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse

More photos of Triodanis perfoliata in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Triodanis perfoliata:
NW, n SNH (Plumas Co.), ScV (Sutter Buttes), SW (uncommon);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.