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Trifolium bifidum
PINOLE CLOVER

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Fabaceae (Leguminosae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: LEGUME FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: generally alternate, generally compound, generally stipuled, generally entire, pinnately veined Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; or flowers 1--few in axils. Flower: generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium 0 or flat to tubular; sepals generally 5, generally fused; petals generally 5, free, fused, or lower 2 +- united into keel (see 3, Key to Groups, for banner, wings); stamens 10 or many (or [1], 5, 6, 7, 9), free or fused or 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1--many, style, stigma 1. Fruit: legume, including a stalk-like base (above receptacle) or not. Seed: 1--many, often +- reniform, generally hard, smooth.
Genera In Family: +- 730 genera, 19400 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture, most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis, peanut; Glycine, soybean; Phaseolus, beans; Medicago, alfalfa; Trifolium, clovers; many orns. Note: Unless stated otherwise, fruit length including stalk-like base, number of 2° leaflets is per 1° leaflet. Upper suture of fruit adaxial, lower abaxial. Anthyllis vulneraria L. evidently a waif, a contaminant of legume seed from Europe. Laburnum anagyroides Medik., collected on Mount St. Helena in 1987, may be naturalized. Ceratonia siliqua L., carob tree (Group 2), differs from Gleditsia triacanthos L. in having evergreen (vs deciduous) leaves that are 1-pinnate (vs 1-pinnate on spurs on old stems, 2-pinnate on new stems) with 2--5(8) (vs 7--17) 1° leaflets, commonly cultivated, now naturalized in southern California. Aeschynomene rudis Benth. , Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss (possibly extirpated), Lens culinaris Medik. are agricultural weeds. Caragana arborescens Lam. only cult. Ononis alopecuroides L. , Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. all evidently extirpated. Cercidium moved to Parkinsonia; Chamaecytisus to Cytisus; Psoralidium lanceolatum to Ladeania.
eFlora Treatment Author: Martin F. Wojciechowski, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Martin F. Wojciechowski, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: TrifoliumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CLOVER
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, unarmed. Leaf: generally palmately compound; stipules conspicuous, partly fused to petiole, generally papery or membranous; leaflets generally 3, occasionally 5--9, +- toothed or wavy. Inflorescence: raceme (generally umbel-like), head, or spike, axillary or terminal, generally many-flowered, generally involucred, generally peduncled; inflorescence bracts 0 or forming vestigial ring or involucre; flower bracts present or not. Flower: generally spreading to erect, generally becoming reflexed; corolla generally purple to pale lavender, occasionally yellow, persistent after flower; 9 filaments fused, 1 free. Fruit: generally indehiscent but generally breaking, short, plump, generally enclosed in corolla; base generally stalk-like. Seed: 1--6.
Species In Genus: +- 300 species: temps, tropical mountains, northern hemisphere, South America, Africa; foodplant for lepidopterans, cultivated as green manure in crop rotation, fodder. Etymology: (Latin: 3 leaves)
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael A. Vincent & Duane Isely

Trifolium bifidum A. Gray
NATIVE
Habit: Annual, glabrous or sparsely finely hairy. Stem: sprawling to erect. Leaf: cauline; stipules short-awned; leaflets 1--2 cm, oblanceolate to obovate, tip generally notched. Inflorescence: head- or umbel-like, 7--15 mm wide, generally 5--many-flowered; axis tip generally +- exserted; pedicels 1--2 mm; flowers becoming reflexed. Flower: calyx 3.5--5 mm, tube 0.8--1.4 mm, glabrous, lobes >> tube, +- 0.2 mm wide at base, awn-like, bristle-tipped, hairs generally few, fine; corolla 6--9 mm, dull yellow to pink-purple. Seed: 1--2. Chromosomes: 2n=16.

eFlora Treatment Author: Michael A. Vincent & Duane Isely
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Citation for this treatment: Michael A. Vincent & Duane Isely 2016. Trifolium bifidum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47053, accessed on April 30, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on April 30, 2016.


Trifolium bifidum var. decipiens
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© 2004 Carol W. Witham
Trifolium bifidum var. decipiens
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Trifolium bifidum var. decipiens
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Trifolium bifidum var. decipiens
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Trifolium bifidum var. decipiens
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Trifolium bifidum var. decipiens
click for enlargement
© 2015 Aaron Schusteff

More photos of Trifolium bifidum in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Trifolium bifidum:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.