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Torreyochloa erecta

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: TorreyochloaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb from rhizomes. Stem: decumbent to erect, sometimes rooting at nodes. Leaf: basal and cauline; sheath open +- to base; ligule thinly membranous, acute to obtuse, sometimes toothed. Inflorescence: panicle-like; lower branches reflexed to erect. Spikelet: bisexual; glumes < lowest floret, lower glume generally 1-veined, upper generally 3-veined; florets 2--8; lemma firm, back rounded, scabrous, margin near tip entire to scabrous-serrate at 10×, prominently (5)7--9-veined, veins not converging at tip; awn 0; palea +- = lemma.
Species In Genus: +- 5 species: temperate North America, eastern Asia. Etymology: (J. Torrey, American botanist, 1796--1873) Note: Plants generally occurring in freshwater wet habitats.
eFlora Treatment Author: Jerrold I. Davis
Unabridged Reference: Davis 2007 FNANM 24:607--609, 1991 Phytologia 70:361--365

Torreyochloa erecta (Hitchc.) G.L. Church
Stem: 2--6 dm. Inflorescence: 5.5--11 cm; lower branches erect to ascending. Spikelet: florets 4--7; lowest lemma 2.3--3.1 mm; anthers of lowest floret 0.6--0.8 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Stream, lake margins, conifer forest; Elevation: 2000--3500 m. Bioregional Distribution: CaRH, SNH; Distribution Outside California: to Oregon, Nevada. Flowering Time: Jul--Sep
Synonyms: Puccinellia erecta (Hitchc.) Munz;
Jepson eFlora Author: Jerrold I. Davis
Unabridged Reference: Davis 2007 FNANM 24:607--609, 1991 Phytologia 70:361--365
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Citation for this treatment: Jerrold I. Davis 2012, Torreyochloa erecta, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 09, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 09, 2018.

Torreyochloa erecta
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson
Torreyochloa erecta
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson
Torreyochloa erecta
click for enlargement
© 2007 Steve Matson
Torreyochloa erecta
click for enlargement
© 2007 Steve Matson
Torreyochloa erecta
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson

More photos of Torreyochloa erecta in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Torreyochloa erecta:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.