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Torilis arvensis
TALL SOCK-DESTROYER

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CARROT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally +- scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally +- ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a +- conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally +- persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1--several per interval between ribs.
Genera In Family: 300 genera, 3000 species: +- worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Note: Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: TorilisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual, taprooted, hairy or bristly. Stem: spreading or erect, branched. Leaf: blade lanceolate to triangular, 1-pinnately dissected. Inflorescence: umbels compound, terminal or opposite leaves, peduncled or sessile; bracts generally 0 or small; bractlets several, thread-like to linear; rays 0--few, spreading-ascending; pedicels 0 or short. Flower: generally +- bilateral; calyx lobes 0 or evident; petals obcordate, white or +- red, tips narrowed, outer petals +- > others; styles short. Fruit: oblong to ovate, +- compressed side-to-side; 1° ribs thread-like, prickly, 2° ribs densely prickly or tubercled; oil tubes 1 per rib interval; fruit axis divided in distal 1/2. Seed: face grooved.
Species In Genus: 10--15 species: Eurasia. Etymology: (Name used by Adanson in 1763, meaning obscure)

Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link
NATURALIZED
Habit: Plant 3--10 dm, slender. Leaf: petiole 2--8 cm; blade 5--12 cm, +- ovate, 2--3-pinnate, leaflets 5--60 mm, lanceolate to ovate, regularly pinnately cut; distal cauline leaves generally 1-pinnate. Inflorescence: peduncle 2--12 cm; bracts 0--2; bractlets several, 2--4 mm, linear; rays 2--10, +- equal; pedicels 1--4 mm. Fruit: 3--5 mm, oblong-ovate; prickles spreading, length generally = fruit width. Chromosomes: 2n=12.
Ecology: Disturbed places; Elevation: < 1600 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP (esp NW, n SNF, CW); Distribution Outside California: widely introduced, native to central and southern Europe. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul
Synonyms: Torilis arvensis (Huds.) Link subsp. purpurea (Ten.) Hayek
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax
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Weed listed by Cal-IPC

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Citation for this treatment: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax 2016. Torilis arvensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=46743, accessed on May 06, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 06, 2016.


Torilis arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Torilis arvensis
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© 2010 Barry Breckling
Torilis arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2010 Barry Breckling
Torilis arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Torilis arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse
Torilis arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2008 Keir Morse

More photos of Torilis arvensis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Torilis arvensis:
CA-FP (esp NW, n SNF, CW);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.