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Tetracoccus ilicifolius
HOLLY-LEAVED TETRACOCCUS

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PicrodendraceaeView Description 

Common Name: BITTER-TREE FAMILY
Habit: Shrub [tree]; dioecious [monoecious]. Stem: generally branched. Leaf: simple [palmate-compound], alternate, opposite, or whorled in 3s; entire or toothed; stipules 0 [present]. Inflorescence: generally axillary [subterminal, terminal]. Staminate Flower: +- radial; sepals [3]4--10[12], free [fused], overlapped; petals 0; nectary disk present [0]; stamens [2]5--10[55], filaments free [fused]. Pistillate Flower: +- radial; sepals [3]4--13, free; petals 0; nectary disk present [0]; ovary superior, compound, placentas axile, ovules generally 2 per chamber, styles free [fused]. Fruit: capsule.
Genera In Family: 24 genera, 80 species: tropics, especially southern hemisphere. Note: Incl in (non-monophyletic) Euphorbiaceae in TJM (1993).
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce G. Baldwin, family description
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: TetracoccusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Plant generally 0.5--2 m; sap clear. Stem: axis erect; branches generally many, spreading to erect; twigs generally +- red, turning gray, generally hairy, glabrous in age; young lateral twigs short, sometimes becoming spine-like. Leaf: cauline, generally clustered at short, lateral branch tips; petiole < 2 mm; blade leathery, base obtuse to acute. Staminate Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, or panicle, occasionally clustered on short, lateral twigs, minute-bracted. Pistillate Inflorescence: flower 1. Staminate Flower: sepals 0.5--2 mm; filaments glabrous or hairy; nectary disk +- minute-lobed. Pistillate Flower: sepals 2--5 mm; nectary disk minute-lobed; ovary (2)3--5-chambered, style = chamber in number, free, +- flat, generally spreading. Fruit: +- spheric, generally lobed, glabrous or short-hairy, generally brown. Seed: smooth, shiny.
Species In Genus: 5 species: California, Arizona, Mexico. Etymology: (Latin: 4 seeds, from 4-lobed ovary in Tetracoccus dioicus)
eFlora Treatment Author: Grady L. Webster

Tetracoccus ilicifolius Coville & Gilman
NATIVE
Stem: twigs sparsely and finely brown-tomentose, glabrous in age. Leaf: generally opposite or 3-whorled; blade 15--30 mm, lanceolate to ovate or wide-elliptic, sharp-toothed, teeth 8--20 per leaf, tip obtuse to acute. Staminate Inflorescence: panicle, +- dense; flowers +- sessile; pedicel << 0.5 mm. Staminate Flower: sepals 7--9, +- linear to lanceolate; stamens 7--9, filaments 2--3 mm, base soft-hairy. Pistillate Flower: pedicel 8--15 mm; sepals 5--8, 2--4 mm, wide-lanceolate to ovate; ovary densely tomentose, chambers 4, styles +- 3 mm. Fruit: 8--9 mm, 6--8 mm wide, brown-tomentose.
Ecology: Dry, rocky slopes; Elevation: 600--1700 m. Bioregional Distribution: n DMtns (Grapevine Mtns, Panamint Range). Flowering Time: May--Jun
eFlora Treatment Author: Grady L. Webster
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

Previous taxon: Tetracoccus hallii
Next taxon: Pittosporaceae

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Citation for this treatment: Grady L. Webster 2016. Tetracoccus ilicifolius, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=46214, accessed on May 24, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 24, 2016.


Tetracoccus ilicifolius
click for enlargement
© 2009 Dana York
Tetracoccus ilicifolius
click for enlargement
© 2009 Dana York
Tetracoccus ilicifolius
click for enlargement
© 2012 Steve Matson
Tetracoccus ilicifolius
click for enlargement
© 2012 Steve Matson
Tetracoccus ilicifolius
click for enlargement
© 2012 Steve Matson
Tetracoccus ilicifolius
click for enlargement
© 2012 Steve Matson

More photos of Tetracoccus ilicifolius in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Tetracoccus ilicifolius:
n DMtns (Grapevine Mtns, Panamint Range).
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.