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Vascular Plants of California
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Tetracoccus hallii

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PicrodendraceaeView Description 
Habit: Shrub [tree]; dioecious [monoecious]. Stem: generally branched. Leaf: simple [palmate-compound], alternate, opposite, or whorled in 3s; entire or toothed; stipules 0 [present]. Inflorescence: generally axillary [subterminal, terminal]. Staminate Flower: +- radial; sepals [3]4--10[12], free [fused], overlapped; petals 0; nectary disk present [0]; stamens [2]5--10[55], filaments free [fused]. Pistillate Flower: +- radial; sepals [3]4--13, free; petals 0; nectary disk present [0]; ovary superior, compound, placentas axile, ovules generally 2 per chamber, styles free [fused]. Fruit: capsule. Seed: 1--2 per chamber, scar generally appendaged [not].
Genera In Family: 24 genera, 80 species: tropics, especially southern hemisphere. Note: Incl in (non-monophyletic) Euphorbiaceae in TJM (1993).
eFlora Treatment Author: Bruce G. Baldwin, family description
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: TetracoccusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Plant generally 0.5--2 m; sap clear. Stem: axis erect; branches generally many, spreading to erect; twigs generally +- red, turning gray, generally hairy, glabrous in age; young lateral twigs short, sometimes becoming spine-like. Leaf: cauline, generally clustered at short, lateral branch tips; petiole < 2 mm; blade leathery, base obtuse to acute. Staminate Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, or panicle, occasionally clustered on short, lateral twigs, minute-bracted. Pistillate Inflorescence: flower 1. Staminate Flower: sepals 0.5--2 mm; filaments glabrous or hairy; nectary disk +- minute-lobed. Pistillate Flower: sepals 2--5 mm; nectary disk minute-lobed; ovary (2)3--5-chambered, style = chamber in number, free, +- flat, generally spreading. Fruit: +- spheric, generally lobed, glabrous or short-hairy, generally brown. Seed: smooth, shiny.
Species In Genus: 5 species: California, Arizona, Mexico. Etymology: (Latin: 4 seeds, from 4-lobed ovary in Tetracoccus dioicus)
eFlora Treatment Author: Grady L. Webster
Reference: Dressler 1954 Rhodora 56:45--61
Tetracoccus hallii Brandegee
Stem: twigs sparsely short-strigose, glabrous in age. Leaf: generally alternate, generally clustered on short, lateral twigs; blade 2--12 mm, oblanceolate to obovate, entire, tip obtuse to rounded. Staminate Inflorescence: cyme; flowers generally 1--5, generally clustered on short, lateral twigs; pedicel 3--5.5 mm. Staminate Flower: sepals 4--6, +- round; stamens 4--8, filaments 1.5--2.5 mm, glabrous. Pistillate Flower: pedicel 0.5--1(3) mm; sepals generally 5, 2--5 mm, ovate to deltate; ovary generally 3-lobed, dense-, fine-gray-tomentose, chambers (2)3(4), styles 1.5--2 mm. Fruit: 8--12 mm, 6--10 mm wide, fine-tomentose.
Ecology: Rocky slopes, washes; Elevation: < 1200 m. Bioregional Distribution: se DMoj, DSon; Distribution Outside California: western Arizona. Flowering Time: Mar--May
Jepson eFlora Author: Grady L. Webster
Reference: Dressler 1954 Rhodora 56:45--61
Jepson Online Interchange
Listed on CNPS Rare Plant Inventory

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Botanical illustration including Tetracoccus hallii

botanical illustration including Tetracoccus hallii


Citation for this treatment: Grady L. Webster 2012, Tetracoccus hallii, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on March 21, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on March 21, 2019.

Tetracoccus hallii
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© 2010 Steve Matson
Tetracoccus hallii
click for enlargement
© 2010 Steve Matson
Tetracoccus hallii
click for enlargement
© 2010 Steve Matson
Tetracoccus hallii
click for enlargement
© 2010 James M. Andre
Tetracoccus hallii
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© 2012 Neal Kramer
Tetracoccus hallii
click for enlargement
© 2012 Neal Kramer

More photos of Tetracoccus hallii in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Tetracoccus hallii:
se DMoj, DSon;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.