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Synthyris reniformis
SNOW QUEEN

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PlantaginaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: PLANTAIN FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1--few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4--5, generally fused at base; corolla 4--5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1--2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2--4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
Genera In Family: 110 genera, +- 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: SynthyrisView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Perennial herb, rhizomed. Leaf: basal, deciduous to persistent, long-petioled; blade ovate to round, base acute to cordate, tip acute to rounded, margin serrate, some deeply cut to pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: scapose; axillary raceme fusiform to conical, dense to open; flowers 5--100, bracts subtending flowers or not. Flower: bilateral; sepals 2--4, fused laterally; petals 3--4 or 0, fused basally, bell-shaped [2-lipped], blue to purple-blue or white; stamens 2, epipetalous, exserted; stigmas 2, fused, minutely capped, ovules 2--16. Fruit: loculicidal, laterally flattened, notched at tip. Seed: flattened front-to-back or +- cupped, oval; coat net-like, brown.
Species In Genus: 19 species: North America. Etymology: (Greek: united door, from basally united valves of fruit)
eFlora Treatment Author: Larry Hufford

Synthyris reniformis (Douglas ex Benth.) Benth.
NATIVE
Leaf: petiole <= 13 cm; blade <= 7.5 cm, <= 8.5 cm wide, widely ovate, base lobed, tip obtuse to rounded. Inflorescence: raceme, curved to reclining on soil in fruit, <= 18 cm; flowers < 15. Flower: corolla <= 10 mm, blue, tube long-soft-wavy-hairy; filaments <= 9 mm; style <= 11 mm; ovules 4. Fruit: <= 4 mm, <= 9 mm wide; sparsely hairy. Seed: slightly cupped. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Moist forest; Elevation: < 1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, SnFrB; Distribution Outside California: to Washington. Flowering Time: Feb--Jun
Synonyms: Synthyris reniformis (Douglas ex Benth.) Benth. var. reniformis
eFlora Treatment Author: Larry Hufford
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Previous taxon: Synthyris missurica subsp. missurica
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Citation for this treatment: Larry Hufford 2016. Synthyris reniformis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45996, accessed on May 31, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 31, 2016.


Synthyris reniformis
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© 2014 John Game
Synthyris reniformis
click for enlargement
© 2014 John Game

More photos of Synthyris reniformis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Synthyris reniformis:
NW, SnFrB;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.