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Struthiopteris spicant
DEER FERN

Higher Taxonomy
Family: BlechnaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: DEER FERN FAMILY
Habit: Plants in soil [climbing]; rhizome short- to long-creeping to erect, scaly; new growth often +- red. Leaf: of 1 or 2 kinds, fertile, sterile; stipe in ×-section with vascular strands in circle; blade [(simple or 2-pinnate)] deeply pinnately lobed to 1-pinnate, pinnae deeply pinnately lobed or not, hairs generally 0; veins free or netted. Sporangia: sori linear to oblong, along veins parallel to nearest midrib; indusium shaped +- like sorus, opening towards nearest midrib; stalk cells in 2--3 rows; spores elliptic, scar linear.
Genera In Family: 24 genera, +- 250 species: worldwide, especially tropics; several species cultivated. Note: Until recently, most species usually treated in an extremely morphologically heterogeneous Blechnum, with some species more closely related to other genera (such as Brainea, Doodia, Sadleria) than to other species of Blechnum.
eFlora Treatment Author: Carl J. Rothfels, John C. Game, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux
Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin, Alan R. Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: StruthiopterisView Description 

Habit: Rhizome short-creeping. Leaf: of 2 kinds, fertile > sterile, with much narrower pinnae or lobes; adjacent pinnae fused at their junction with rachis, lower pinnae gradually reduced; veins of sterile leaves free.
Species In Genus: 5 species: north-temperate, especially China, Japan. Etymology: (Latin/Greek: ostrich fern)
Unabridged Note: Struthiopteris is relatively isolated in Blechnaceae, more closely related to the monotypic genera Blechnidium and (possibly) Brainea than to Blechnum (de Gaspar et al. 2016 Cladistics in press).
eFlora Treatment Author: Carl J. Rothfels, John C. Game, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux

Struthiopteris spicant (L.) F.W. Weiss
NATIVE
Leaf: stipe short, base +- black, with persistent +- brown scales; sterile leaves forming rosette, spreading to arching, firm, deeply pinnately lobed to 1-pinnate, generally < 1 m, 2--10 cm wide; pinnae generally 20--80 pairs, 5--8 mm wide, entire to shallowly crenate, lower gradually reduced to semicircular lobes < 5 mm; fertile leaves appearing after sterile, in center of rosette, +- erect, 1-pinnate, > sterile, pinnae +- 2 mm wide, unlobed. Chromosomes: 2n=68.
Ecology: Shaded, neutral to acid moist areas; Elevation: +- 0--1500 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, NCoRO, n SNH, CCo, SnFrB; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, Idaho; Europe, southwestern Asia, northern Africa. Note: Locally common.
Synonyms: Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth
eFlora Treatment Author: Carl J. Rothfels, John C. Game, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux
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Citation for this treatment: Carl J. Rothfels, John C. Game, Alan R. Smith & Thomas Lemieux 2017. Struthiopteris spicant, Revision 4, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45778, accessed on October 22, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on October 22, 2017.


Geographic subdivisions for Struthiopteris spicant:
NCo, NCoRO, n SNH, CCo, SnFrB;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.