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Stenotaphrum secundatum
SAINT AUGUSTINE GRASS

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: StenotaphrumView Description 

Habit: Annual, perennial herb. Stem: prostrate to ascending, generally compressed; internode solid to spongy inside. Leaf: cauline; ligule mostly hairy, membrane < 0.5 mm; blade folded. Inflorescence: spike-like, infl branches, pedicels reduced, +- embedded, with spikelet bases, in flattened, straight or wavy, thickened axis. Spikelet: compressed, generally falling as 1 unit, sometimes with inflorescence axis; glumes equal to unequal; florets 2, lower floret sterile or staminate, lemma +- = upper glume, upper floret bisexual, lemma thick, firm, smooth or minutely rough, margin flat or inrolled, tip blunt.
Species In Genus: 7 species: tropics worldwide. Etymology: (Greek: narrow trench, from spikelet scars on inflorescence axis)
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr. & Robert Webster

Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze
NATURALIZED
Habit: Perennial herb from long stolons. Stem: vegetative generally prostrate; flower stem decumbent, 1--4 dm. Leaf: sheath 1.2--10 cm, glabrous; ligule +- 0.5 mm; blade 5--15 cm, 5--15 mm wide, upper surface glabrous. Inflorescence: 5--10 cm; axis straight or wavy, thickened, flat; each spikelet subtended by 1 bristle; spikelet stalk < 0.5 mm. Spikelet: 4--5 mm, +- 1.5--2 mm wide, lanceolate to elliptic; lower glume 1--2 mm; upper glume +- = spikelet; lower floret sterile, lemma 7--9-veined, tip acute to acuminate, palea +- = lemma; upper floret slightly < lower floret.
Ecology: Fields, roadsides; Elevation: < 150 m. Bioregional Distribution: CCo, SCo; Distribution Outside California: southern United States, Africa, Pacific islands; probably native to South America. Flowering Time: Jul--Sep
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr. & Robert Webster
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Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. & Robert Webster 2016. Stenotaphrum secundatum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45599, accessed on September 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on September 28, 2016.


Stenotaphrum secundatum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Stenotaphrum secundatum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Stenotaphrum secundatum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Stenotaphrum secundatum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Stenotaphrum secundatum
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson

More photos of Stenotaphrum secundatum in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Stenotaphrum secundatum:
CCo, SCo;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.