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Vascular Plants of California
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Stachys pycnantha
SHORT-SPIKED HEDGE NETTLE


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: MINT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub [tree, vine], glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic. Stem: generally erect, generally 4-angled. Leaf: generally simple to deeply lobed, generally opposite, generally gland-dotted. Inflorescence: generally cymes, generally many in dense axillary clusters surrounding stem, generally separated by evident internodes or collectively crowded, spike- or panicle-like, occasionally head-like or raceme, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1--2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, +- flat to hood-like, occasionally 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, epipetalous, generally exserted, paired, pairs generally unequal, occasionally 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, generally arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2. Fruit: generally 4 nutlets, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth.
Genera In Family: +- 230 genera, 7200 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula, lavender; Mentha, mint; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Thymus, thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in California Cedronella, Leonotis, Monarda, Phlomis). Note: Moluccella laevis L., shell flower, historical waif in California. Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. ascendens (Jordan) Briq. reported as alien but not naturalized. Salazaria moved to Scutellaria; California Hyptis moved to Condea, California Satureja moved to Clinopodium.
eFlora Treatment Author: Dieter H. Wilken & Margriet Wetherwax, family description, key to genera, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: StachysView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: HEDGE-NETTLE
Habit: Perennial herb [annual], hairy, generally glandular; rhizome slender or 0. Stem: decumbent to erect, 0.1--2.5 m. Leaf: 1.5--18 cm, proximal generally petioled, distal +- sessile; blade oblong to ovate, serrate to crenate. Inflorescence: spike-like, generally terminal, interrupted or continuous, bracted. Flower: calyx bell-shaped, +- radial, veins 5--10, lobes 5, erect or spreading, triangular, tips sharp; corolla white, yellow, pink, red, magenta, or purple, tube narrow, with internal ring of hairs generally above base, perpendicular to oblique to tube axis, generally with short, pouched spur on the lower side of the tube, upper lip erect or generally parallel to tube axis, concave, entire (notched), generally hairy, lower lip perpendicular to tube axis or reflexed, 3(2)-lobed, glabrous to hairy. Fruit: oblong to ovoid, brown to black, smooth or irregularly, minutely roughened.
Species In Genus: +- 300 species: generally temperate; some cultivated for ornamental or edible rhizomatous tubers. Etymology: (Greek: ear of corn, from inflorescence) Note: Stachys arvensis L., Stachys floridana Shuttlew. historical waifs.
eFlora Treatment Author: John B. Nelson
Reference: Mulligan & Munro 1989 Naturaliste Canad 116:35--51
Unabridged Reference: Epling 1934 Fedde Rep Sp Nov Regni Veg 80:1--75
Stachys pycnantha Benth.
NATIVE
Stem: decumbent to erect, 0.3--1 m, generally > 0.6 m, generally branched, soft- to stiff-hairy, glandular. Leaf: strongly aromatic; petiole < 5 cm; blade 5--12 cm, ovate or lanceolate to oblong, crenate to serrate, soft- to stiff-hairy, glandular, base rounded to cordate, tip obtuse. Inflorescence: generally < 5 cm, +- continuous, occasionally interrupted proximally; clusters 8--12-flowered. Flower: calyx tube 4--6 mm, densely glandular, soft-hairy; corolla +- white to +- pink, tube 6.5--8.5 mm, ring of hairs > 2 mm from base, oblique, upper lip 3--4 mm, lower 5--7 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=66.
Ecology: Streambanks, springs, pine/oak forest; Elevation: < 1100 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, SN (uncommon), CW, PR. Flowering Time: Jun--Oct Note: May be +- associated with serpentine; more study needed.
Unabridged Synonyms: Stachys ajugoides Benth. var. cymosa Jeps.
Jepson eFlora Author: John B. Nelson
Reference: Mulligan & Munro 1989 Naturaliste Canad 116:35--51
Index of California Plant Names (ICPN; linked via the Jepson Online Interchange)

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Botanical illustration including Stachys pycnantha

botanical illustration including Stachys pycnantha

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Citation for this treatment: John B. Nelson 2012, Stachys pycnantha, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=45389, accessed on December 14, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on December 14, 2019.

Stachys pycnantha
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© 2003 Steve Matson
Stachys pycnantha
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Stachys pycnantha
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© 2005 George W. Hartwell
Stachys pycnantha
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© 2005 George W. Hartwell
Stachys pycnantha
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© 2011 Neal Kramer
Stachys pycnantha
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© 2011 Neal Kramer

More photos of Stachys pycnantha in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Stachys pycnantha:
NW, SN (uncommon), CW, PR.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.