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Spartina foliosa
CALIFORNIA CORD GRASS

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: SpartinaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: CORD GRASS
Habit: Perennial herb, generally with rhizomes. Stem: erect, unbranched. Leaf: basal and cauline; sheath open, > internodes, glabrous, margin of sheath opening sometimes with long, shaggy hairs; ligule a fringe of hairs, 0.5--2 mm; blade flat to inrolled, long tapered, upper surface ridged. Inflorescence: panicle-like; each spike-like branch with 2 rows of overlapping spikelets on lower side of axis. Spikelet: laterally compressed, sessile, breaking below glumes, falling as 1 unit; glumes firmly membranous, obtuse to acuminate or with a small, sharp point, unequal, upper 1--3(5)-veined, generally > floret, lower 1-veined, < floret; floret 1; lemma 1(3)-veined, acute, awned or not, firmly membranous; palea +- = lemma, 2-veined. Fruit: achene-like, seed free from thin ovary wall.
Species In Genus: 15 species: America, Europe, Africa. Etymology: (Greek: a cord) Note: Spartina anglica C.E. Hubb introduced to SnFrB (Creekside Park, Marin Co.).
eFlora Treatment Author: John R. Baird & John W. Thieret

Spartina foliosa Trin.
NATIVE
Habit: Rhizome 2--6 mm wide. Stem: 1 or in small clumps, 6--15 dm, base 7--12 mm wide, thick; internodes fleshy. Leaf: blade 15--45 cm, base 5--17 mm wide, flat when fresh or inrolled near tip, ridges on upper surfaces +- 5 per mm. Inflorescence: 9--25 cm, 5--13 mm wide, dense, cylindric; branches 3--25, closely overlapping, generally closely appressed, 2--8 cm, 3--7 mm wide. Spikelet: 10--25 mm; glume keels glabrous or soft-shaggy-hairy; lower glume 7--8 mm; upper glume 12--25 mm; lemma 10--12 mm, keel glabrous. Chromosomes: 2n=112.
Ecology: Salt marshes, mudflats, shores; Elevation: < 10 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo, CCo, SCo; Distribution Outside California: Mexico. Flowering Time: Jun--Nov Note: Aggressive hybrids with Spartina alterniflora have been reported around San Francisco Bay.
eFlora Treatment Author: John R. Baird & John W. Thieret
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Citation for this treatment: John R. Baird & John W. Thieret 2016. Spartina foliosa, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45044, accessed on February 09, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 09, 2016.


Spartina foliosa
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© 2011 Steve Matson
Spartina foliosa
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© 2011 Steve Matson
Spartina foliosa
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Spartina foliosa
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Spartina foliosa
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© 2005 California Academy of Sciences
Spartina foliosa
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© 2011 Steve Matson

More photos of Spartina foliosa in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Spartina foliosa:
NCo, CCo, SCo;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.