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Solanum elaeagnifolium
WHITE HORSE-NETTLE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: SolanaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: NIGHTSHADE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: various. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla +- radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, on corolla tube, alternate lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, [(drupe)], 2--5-chambered.
Genera In Family: 75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially +- tropics; many alien weeds in California; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia). Toxicity: many TOXIC. Note: Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael H. Nee
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: SolanumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: NIGHTSHADE
Habit: Annual to shrub, vine or not, prickly or not, often glandular. Leaf: alternate to +- opposite, often unequal, entire to deeply pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: panicle or umbel-like, often 1-sided. Flower: calyx +- bell-shaped; corolla +- rotate, white to purple (yellow), lobes generally of different color toward base of midrib, generally without spots at base; anthers free, > filaments, oblong or tapered, opening by 2 pores or short slits near tip, in age often splitting to base; ovary 2-chambered, style 1, generally +- straight, stigma head-like. Fruit: berry, generally spheric, fleshy (or dry, capsule-like). Seed: many, compressed, generally reniform.
Species In Genus: +- 1500 species: worldwide, especially tropical America. Etymology: (Latin: quieting, from narcotic properties) Toxicity: many TOXIC. Note: Many cultivated for food (including potato, Solanum tuberosum), ornamental; Solanum dimidiatum in California an urban weed. See Lycopersicon for other taxa recently included here.

Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Perennial herb < 10 dm, from rhizome, forming colonies, generally prickly, stellate hairs dense, scale-like, rays fused at base. Leaf: 2--15 cm, oblong, entire to +- lobed, +- yellow. Inflorescence: raceme-like. Flower: calyx 5--8 mm, lobes +- = tube; corolla 20--30 mm wide, purple or blue; anthers 8--10 mm, +- equal. Fruit: 8--15 mm, orange, often persistent. Seed: 2.5--3 mm. Chromosomes: n=12.
Ecology: Common. Dry, disturbed places, fields; Elevation: < 1200 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA (exc NCo, KR, GB); Distribution Outside California: to South America; native to central United States, northern Mexico. Flowering Time: May--Sep
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael H. Nee
Jepson Online Interchange
Noxious Weed

Previous taxon: Solanum dulcamara
Next taxon: Solanum furcatum

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botanical illustration including Solanum elaeagnifolium

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Citation for this treatment: Michael H. Nee 2016. Solanum elaeagnifolium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=44852, accessed on February 07, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 07, 2016.


Solanum elaeagnifolium
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© 2015 Neal Kramer
Solanum elaeagnifolium
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© 2015 Neal Kramer
Solanum elaeagnifolium
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© 2015 Keir Morse
Solanum elaeagnifolium
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© 2004 James M. Andre
Solanum elaeagnifolium
click for enlargement
© 2009 Neal Kramer
Solanum elaeagnifolium
click for enlargement
© 2004 James M. Andre

More photos of Solanum elaeagnifolium in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Solanum elaeagnifolium:
CA (exc NCo, KR, GB);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.