Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
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Solanum carolinense
CAROLINA HORSE-NETTLE

Higher Taxonomy
Family: SolanaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: NIGHTSHADE FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: various. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla +- radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, on corolla tube, alternate lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, [(drupe)], 2--5-chambered.
Genera In Family: 75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially +- tropics; many alien weeds in California; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia); Toxicity: many TOXIC. Note: Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael H. Nee
Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: SolanumView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: NIGHTSHADE
Habit: Annual to shrub, vine or not, prickly or not, often glandular. Leaf: alternate to +- opposite, often unequal, entire to deeply pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: panicle or umbel-like, often 1-sided. Flower: calyx +- bell-shaped; corolla +- rotate, white to purple (yellow), lobes generally of different color toward base of midrib, generally without spots at base; anthers free, > filaments, oblong or tapered, opening by 2 pores or short slits near tip, in age often splitting to base; ovary 2-chambered, style 1, generally +- straight, stigma head-like. Fruit: berry, generally spheric, fleshy (or dry, capsule-like). Seed: many, compressed, generally reniform.
Species In Genus: +- 1500 species: worldwide, especially tropical America. Etymology: (Latin: quieting, from narcotic properties) Toxicity: many TOXIC. Note: Many cultivated for food (including potato, Solanum tuberosum), ornamental; Solanum dimidiatum in California an urban weed. See Lycopersicon for other taxa recently included here.

Solanum carolinense L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Perennial herb 2--9 dm, from rhizome, little-branched; prickles slender, spreading; stellate hairs fine, generally sessile. Leaf: 5--15 cm, ovate, +- entire to wavy-lobed, teeth or lobes entire. Inflorescence: generally raceme-like. Flower: calyx 5--6 mm, lobes +- = tube; corolla 20--30 mm wide, generally pale violet (white); anthers 7--9 mm, +- equal. Fruit: 8--20 mm, yellow. Seed: +- 2.5 mm. Chromosomes: n=12.
Ecology: Uncommon. Disturbed places, fields, roadsides; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: s NCoRO, n SN, GV, SCo; Distribution Outside California: native to central and eastern United States, northern Mexico. Flowering Time: May--Aug
eFlora Treatment Author: Michael H. Nee
Jepson Online Interchange
Noxious Weed

Previous taxon: Solanum aviculare
Next taxon: Solanum dimidiatum

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botanical illustration including Solanum carolinense

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Citation for this treatment: Michael H. Nee 2016. Solanum carolinense, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=44835, accessed on May 25, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 25, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Solanum carolinense:
s NCoRO, n SN, GV, SCo;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.