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Vascular Plants of California
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Sisymbrium altissimum
TUMBLE MUSTARD


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: MUSTARD FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1--many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
Genera In Family: +- 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central NCoR, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in SCo, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in PR, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern NCoRO, CCo. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: SisymbriumView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Habit: Annual [to perennial herb]; hairs simple or 0. Leaf: basal rosetted or not, petioled, simple, entire, dentate, or pinnately lobed; cauline petioled or sessile, base not lobed. Inflorescence: elongated. Flower: sepals erect to spreading, lateral pair generally not sac-like at base, tips horned or not; petals yellow [white, pink], clawed. Fruit: silique, dehiscent, linear or awl-shaped, cylindric, unsegmented; stigma 2-lobed. Seed: 6--160, in 1 row, wingless.
Species In Genus: 41 species: North America, Eurasia, northern and southern Africa. Etymology: (Greek: for various mustards)
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
Reference: Warwick & Al-Shehbaz 2003 Novon 13:265--267
Sisymbrium altissimum L.
NATURALIZED
Stem: (2)4--12(16) dm, branched distally. Leaf: basal, proximal cauline (2)5--20(35) cm, pinnately lobed; lateral lobes (3)4--6(8) pairs, oblong to lanceolate, entire or dentate; distal finely dissected into linear to thread-like segments. Flower: sepals 4--6 mm, tip horned; petals (5)6--8(10) mm, 2.5--4 mm wide, claw 3.5--6 mm. Fruit: (4.5)6--9(12) cm, 1--2 mm wide, linear; style 0.5--2 mm; pedicels spreading, (4)6--10(13) mm, +- as thick as fruit. Seed: 90--120, 0.8--1 mm, oblong. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, fields, pastures; Elevation: < 2700 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA; Distribution Outside California: North America; native to Europe. Flowering Time: May--Jul
Jepson eFlora Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
Reference: Warwick & Al-Shehbaz 2003 Novon 13:265--267
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Botanical illustration including Sisymbrium altissimum

botanical illustration including Sisymbrium altissimum

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Citation for this treatment: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz 2012, Sisymbrium altissimum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=44649, accessed on September 17, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on September 17, 2019.

Sisymbrium altissimum
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© 2008 Thomas Stoughton
Sisymbrium altissimum
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© 2015 Steve Matson
Sisymbrium altissimum
click for enlargement
© 2008 Thomas Stoughton
Sisymbrium altissimum
click for enlargement
© 2015 Steve Matson
Sisymbrium altissimum
click for enlargement
© 2008 Steve Matson
Sisymbrium altissimum
click for enlargement
© 2009 Barry Breckling

More photos of Sisymbrium altissimum in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Sisymbrium altissimum:
CA
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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.