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Selaginella kraussiana

Higher Taxonomy
Family: SelaginellaceaeView Description 

Common Name: SPIKE-MOSS FAMILY
Stem: wiry, generally rooting adventitiously [or not] from downward-growing leafless shoot-like structures (rhizophores), branching variable, generally not fragile when dry. Leaf: many, simple, overlapped, appressed, small, +- scale-like, 1-veined, generally grooved abaxially [or not] nearly to tip, generally +- of 2 kinds ("under-leaves" under main stem, "over-leaves" over it). Cone: paired or 1, terminal, generally 4-sided, fertile leaves not like sterile, generally strongly keeled. Sporangia: 1 per leaf axil, 2 kinds, male (generally more distal in cones, spores many, small), female (spores (1)4, large, generally orange-yellow).
Genera In Family: 1 genus, +- 700 species: worldwide, generally tropics, warm temperate.
Unabridged Note: Despite recent progress in understanding relationships (Zhou et al. 2016 Cladistics 32:360--389; Weststrand & Korall 2016 Amer J Bot 103:2136--2159), future taxonomic changes in the family are likely.
eFlora Treatment Author: Paul Wilson & Thomas J. Rosatti
Scientific Editor: Alan R. Smith, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: SelaginellaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: SPIKE-MOSS

Etymology: (Latin: small Selago, ancient name for some Lycopodium) Note: Some cultivated as groundcover, curiosity: Selaginella kraussiana; Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. & Grev.) Spring, resurrection plant. Hand lens, generally at +- 20×, required for leaves (shape, margin, awn at tip), cones.
Unabridged Note: All native California taxa are in the Rupestrae clade (Weststrand & Korall 2016 Amer J Bot 103:2160--2169), also treated as section Homoeophyllae (Zhou et al. 2015 Taxon 64:1117--1140) or, formerly, the nomenclaturally ambiguous subgenus Tetragonostachys (Jermy 1986 Fern Gazette 13:117--118). Selaginella shared a common ancestor with Isoetes, +- 380 million years ago (Larsén & Rydin 2016 Int J Pl Sci 177:157--174).

Selaginella kraussiana (Kunze) A. Braun
NATURALIZED
Habit: Plant a sprawling loose mat, with stems +- elevated on prominent rhizophores; green; stem with inconspicuous swellings (articulations) at branching points. Leaf: In 4 ranks, lateral leaves +- perpendicular to stem. Cone: Solitary, appearing lateral on branches, 2--25 mm.
Ecology: Moist forest understories, along paths; Elevation: 0--50 m. Bioregional Distribution: NCo (vicinity of Arcata, Humboldt Co.); Distribution Outside California: southeastern United States, Hawaii; native to southern and eastern Africa; introduced widely, a problematic invasive in New Zealand. Note: Escape from cultivation; not drought tolerant. May constitute a species complex.
Jepson eFlora Author: Carl Rothfels
Unabridged Reference: Brownsey & Smith-Dodsworth 1989 New Zealand Ferns and Allied Plants; Hrusa et al. 2002 Madroño 49:61--98; Weakley 2015 Flora of the Southern and Mid-Atlantic States.
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Citation for this treatment: Carl Rothfels 2017, Selaginella kraussiana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, Revision 5, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=44058, accessed on December 10, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on December 10, 2018.


Geographic subdivisions for Selaginella kraussiana:
NCo (vicinity of Arcata, Humboldt Co.);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.