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Secale cereale

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Poaceae (Gramineae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: GRASS FAMILY
Habit: Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1--many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally +- transparent, +- enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
Genera In Family: 650--900 genera; +- 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). Note: Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761--770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Genus: SecaleView Description 

Common Name: RYE
Habit: Annual, perennial herb. Stem: generally erect. Leaf: sheath appendaged; ligule membranous; blade generally flat. Inflorescence: spike-like, dense, +- flat; axis occasionally breaking at nodes in fruit; spikelets 2-ranked, 1 per node, sessile, not sunken. Spikelet: glumes narrow, rigid, keeled, vein generally 1; florets 2, fertile, sessile and side-to-side, occasionally with vestigial floret between; lemma with keel near margin, keel, margins ciliate, veins 5, tip tapered, awn straight, scabrous.
Species In Genus: 5 species: Eurasia. Etymology: (Latin: ancient name for a cereal, probably for rye)

Secale cereale L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual, occasionally biennial. Stem: 6--12.5 dm, glabrous except below inflorescence. Leaf: sheath glabrous, appendages +- 1 mm; blade 3--10 mm wide. Inflorescence: 8--17 cm, nodding at maturity, generally not breaking apart. Spikelet: glumes 6--17 mm, keeled; lemma 10--16 mm, awn 2--7 cm; anthers 7.5--8.5 mm. Chromosomes: 2n=14.
Ecology: Disturbed slopes, roadsides; Elevation: < 1800 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRI, n SNH, Teh, sw SnFrB, TR, PR, s MP, W&I, DMoj, expected elsewhere; Distribution Outside California: to Alaska, Canada, United States; native to southwestern Asia. Flowering Time: May--Aug Note: Important cereal; planted to stabilize soil; fruit milled for flour, fermented to produce whiskey.
eFlora Treatment Author: James P. Smith, Jr.
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Citation for this treatment: James P. Smith, Jr. 2016. Secale cereale, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=43939, accessed on December 07, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on December 07, 2016.


Secale cereale
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Secale cereale
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Secale cereale
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Secale cereale
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Secale cereale
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson
Secale cereale
click for enlargement
© 2011 Steve Matson

More photos of Secale cereale in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Secale cereale:
KR, NCoRI, n SNH, Teh, sw SnFrB, TR, PR, s MP, W&I, DMoj, expected elsewhere;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.