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Vascular Plants of California
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Scrophularia lanceolata


Higher Taxonomy
Family: ScrophulariaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: FIGWORT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree, generally glandular, some +- aquatic. Stem: round to square in ×-section. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, generally +- entire; stipules generally 0 (present in Limosella). Inflorescence: spike to panicle (head-like), generally bracted, or flowers 1--4 in axils. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx lobes 4--5; corolla bilateral to radial, lobes 4--5; stamens epipetalous, 4--5, 5th a staminode in Scrophularia; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal, or drupe-like.
Genera In Family: +- 65 genera, 1700 species: +- worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (Verbascum). Note: Other taxa moved to Plantaginaceae (Antirrhinum, Bacopa, Collinsia, Cymbalaria, Digitalis, Dopatrium, Gambelia, Gratiola, Hebe, Holmgrenanthe, Keckiella, Kickxia, Limnophila, Linaria, Lindernia, Maurandella, Mohavea, Nothochelone, Penstemon, Pseudorontium, Stemodia, Synthyris, Tonella, Veronica), Orobanchaceae (Bellardia, Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Parentucellia, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Diplacus, Erythranthe, Mimetanthe, Mimulus).
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ScrophulariaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: FIGWORT
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, erect, generally glandular-puberulent to -hairy. Stem: square in ×-section; (15)70--180 cm. Leaf: petioled; opposite, pairs at right angles to each other, lanceolate to triangular-ovate, serrate, dentate, or deeply cut, dark to light green, yellow-green, or gray-green (dull green), base cordate to truncate or occasionally +- wedge-shaped. Inflorescence: generally panicle of cymes, occasionally axillary cymes or flower 1; axes, pedicels generally slender, occasionally glabrous. Flower: calyx lobes 5, 2--4 mm, triangular-ovate to lanceolate, acuminate to acute or rounded, green, persistent, margins scarious or not; corolla 6--14 mm, inflated proximally, generally 2-colored, upper lip 2-lobed, generally darker than lower, lower lip < upper, 3-lobed, middle lobe reflexed, lateral lobes erect, mouth constricted; fertile stamens 4, included, 2 generally longer; staminode 0 or proximally fused to corolla, much-reduced, or elongated with expanded tip; stigma head-like or 2-lobed; nectary disk fleshy, at ovary base. Fruit: septicidal. Seed: oblong-ovoid, ridged.
Species In Genus: 150--200 species: North America, temperate Asia, Mediterranean. Etymology: (Latin: associated with the disease scrofula by the doctrine of signatures)
eFlora Treatment Author: Kim R. Kersh
Reference: Shaw 1962 Aliso 5:147--178
Scrophularia lanceolata Pursh
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: 80--150 cm. Leaf: larger blades 9--13 cm, dark to light green, base cordate to truncate, occasionally +- wedge-shaped. Inflorescence: axes, pedicels +- stout, glandular-puberulent. Flower: calyx lobes 2--4 mm, triangular-ovate, green, tip acute to rounded, margins generally scarious; corolla 8--14 mm, inflated, red to maroon or +- green-brown, mouth +- constricted; staminode broad, tip fan-shaped; stigma head-like.
Ecology: Moist streambanks, meadows, thickets, woodland; Elevation: 1000--2800 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, CaR, MP; Distribution Outside California: northern and central United States, Canada. Flowering Time: May--Jul
Jepson eFlora Author: Kim R. Kersh
Reference: Shaw 1962 Aliso 5:147--178
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Botanical illustration including Scrophularia lanceolata

botanical illustration including Scrophularia lanceolata

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Citation for this treatment: Kim R. Kersh 2012, Scrophularia lanceolata, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=43856, accessed on September 17, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on September 17, 2019.

Scrophularia lanceolata
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Scrophularia lanceolata
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Scrophularia lanceolata
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Scrophularia lanceolata
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Scrophularia lanceolata
click for enlargement
© 2016 Keir Morse
Scrophularia lanceolata
click for enlargement
© 2010 Keir Morse

More photos of Scrophularia lanceolata in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Scrophularia lanceolata:
KR, CaR, MP
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Data provided by the participants of the  Consortium of California Herbaria.
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All markers link to CCH specimen records. The original determination is shown in the popup window.
Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.