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Scrophularia californica
CALIFORNIA FIGWORT

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ScrophulariaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FIGWORT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree, generally glandular, some +- aquatic. Stem: round to square in ×-section. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, generally +- entire; stipules generally 0 (present in Limosella). Inflorescence: spike to panicle (head-like), generally bracted, or flowers 1--4 in axils. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx lobes 4--5; corolla bilateral to radial, lobes 4--5; stamens epipetalous, 4--5, 5th a staminode in Scrophularia; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2. Fruit: capsule, generally +- ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal, or drupe-like.
Genera In Family: +- 65 genera, 1700 species: +- worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (Verbascum). Note: Other taxa moved to Plantaginaceae (Antirrhinum, Bacopa, Collinsia, Cymbalaria, Digitalis, Dopatrium, Gambelia, Gratiola, Hebe, Holmgrenanthe, Keckiella, Kickxia, Limnophila, Linaria, Lindernia, Maurandella, Mohavea, Nothochelone, Penstemon, Pseudorontium, Stemodia, Synthyris, Tonella, Veronica), Orobanchaceae (Bellardia, Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Parentucellia, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus).
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: ScrophulariaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: FIGWORT
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, erect, generally glandular-puberulent to -hairy. Stem: square in ×-section; (15)70--180 cm. Leaf: petioled; opposite, pairs at right angles to each other, lanceolate to triangular-ovate, serrate, dentate, or deeply cut, dark to light green, yellow-green, or gray-green (dull green), base cordate to truncate or occasionally +- wedge-shaped. Inflorescence: generally panicle of cymes, occasionally axillary cymes or flower 1; axes, pedicels generally slender, occasionally glabrous. Flower: calyx lobes 5, 2--4 mm, triangular-ovate to lanceolate, acuminate to acute or rounded, green, persistent, margins scarious or not; corolla 6--14 mm, inflated proximally, generally 2-colored, upper lip 2-lobed, generally darker than lower, lower lip < upper, 3-lobed, middle lobe reflexed, lateral lobes erect, mouth constricted; fertile stamens 4, included, 2 generally longer; staminode 0 or proximally fused to corolla, much-reduced, or elongated with expanded tip; stigma head-like or 2-lobed; nectary disk fleshy, at ovary base. Fruit: septicidal. Seed: oblong-ovoid, ridged.
Species In Genus: 150--200 species: North America, temperate Asia, Mediterranean. Etymology: (Latin: associated with the disease scrofula by the doctrine of signatures)
eFlora Treatment Author: Kim R. Kersh

Scrophularia californica Cham. & Schltdl.
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb. Stem: 80--120 cm. Leaf: larger blades 8--17 cm, dark to light green, base cordate to truncate, occasionally +- wedge-shaped. Inflorescence: axes, pedicels glandular-puberulent. Flower: calyx lobes 3--4 mm, triangular-ovate, green, tip acute to rounded, margins generally scarious; corolla 8--12 mm, inflated, mouth +- constricted, upper lobes red to maroon, lower paler or +- yellow-green; staminode tip club-shaped to obovate; stigma head-like.
Ecology: Common; damp places, chaparral, roadsides; Elevation: < 2500 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Arizona. Flowering Time: Mar--Jul Note: Variable, study needed.
Synonyms: Scrophularia californica subsp. californica; Scrophularia californica subsp. floribunda (Greene) R.J. Shaw; Scrophularia californica var. floribunda Greene
Unabridged Note: Plants in Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, treated as Scrophularia californica or Scrophularia oregana Pennell.
eFlora Treatment Author: Kim R. Kersh
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Citation for this treatment: Kim R. Kersh 2016. Scrophularia californica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=43849, accessed on February 11, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 11, 2016.


Scrophularia californica
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© 2009 Neal Kramer
Scrophularia californica
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Scrophularia californica
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© 2006 Steve Matson
Scrophularia californica
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© 2001 Tony Morosco
Scrophularia californica
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© 2009 Keir Morse
Scrophularia californica
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© 2010 Neal Kramer

More photos of Scrophularia californica in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Scrophularia californica:
CA-FP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.