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Sanicula graveolens

Higher Taxonomy
Family: ApiaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally +- scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally +- ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a +- conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally +- persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1--several per interval between ribs.
Genera In Family: 300 genera, 3000 species: +- worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Note: Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: SaniculaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Biennial, perennial herb, rhizomed or tap- or tuberous-rooted, glabrous or minutely scabrous. Stem: generally spreading to erect. Leaf: blade oblong-ovate to obovate, entire to ternately, palmately, or pinnately lobed, dissected, or compound. Inflorescence: heads simple, in cymes or racemes, dense, of bisexual and staminate (staminate only) flowers; bracts entire or lobed, < to > heads; bisexual flowers pedicelled or not, staminate generally long-pedicelled. Flower: calyx lobes prominent, persistent, occasionally fused; petals wide, yellow, purple, or +- white (pale red-orange), tips narrowed, generally lobed; styles long or short; ovary tip projection 0. Fruit: oblong-ovate to round, +- compressed side-to-side; fruit-halves +- cylindric, prickly to scaly or tubercled; ribs 0; oil tubes evident or obscure, regularly or irregularly arranged; fruit central axis not obvious. Seed: face flat or grooved.
Species In Genus: +- 40 species: temperate, +- worldwide. Etymology: (Latin: to heal)
Reference: [Bell 1954 Univ Calif Publ Bot 27:133--230]

Sanicula graveolens DC.
Habit: Plant low-spreading to erect, 5--45 cm, slender, taprooted (roots tuberous). Leaf: compound, ternate then 1--2-pinnate, green or +- purple; blade 1.5--4 cm, +- ovate, leaflets stalked, margins crenate to lobed, distal segment of main axis 1--5 mm wide. Inflorescence: peduncle 0.5--8 cm; bracts fused at base, 6--10, +- 1 mm, < heads, linear to ovate; pedicel of bisexual flower 0, staminate 2--2.5 mm. Flower: bisexual 3--5, staminate 7--12; calyx lobes +- fused, 0.5--1 mm, ovate, acute; corolla yellow; styles 3 × calyx lobes. Fruit: 3--5 mm, ovate to +- round, prickles stout, hooked, inflated, bulbous-based, proximal occasionally poorly developed. Seed: face concave. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Open forest or rocky slopes, occasionally serpentine; Elevation: 600--2600 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaRH, SNH, SCoRO, WTR, SnBr, PR, MP; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Montana; southern South America. Flowering Time: Mar--May
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax
Reference: [Bell 1954 Univ Calif Publ Bot 27:133--230]
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Citation for this treatment: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax 2012, Sanicula graveolens, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 15, 2017.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2017, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on December 15, 2017.

Sanicula graveolens
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Sanicula graveolens
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Sanicula graveolens
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Sanicula graveolens
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© 2005 Steve Matson
Sanicula graveolens
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© 2010 Barry Breckling
Sanicula graveolens
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© 2004 Steve Matson

More photos of Sanicula graveolens in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Sanicula graveolens:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.