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Sanicula bipinnatifida

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally +- scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally +- ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a +- conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally +- persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1--several per interval between ribs.
Genera In Family: 300 genera, 3000 species: +- worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Note: Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif.
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: SaniculaView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Biennial, perennial herb, rhizomed or tap- or tuberous-rooted, glabrous or minutely scabrous. Stem: generally spreading to erect. Leaf: blade oblong-ovate to obovate, entire to ternately, palmately, or pinnately lobed, dissected, or compound. Inflorescence: heads simple, in cymes or racemes, dense, of bisexual and staminate (staminate only) flowers; bracts entire or lobed, < to > heads; bisexual flowers pedicelled or not, staminate generally long-pedicelled. Flower: calyx lobes prominent, persistent, occasionally fused; petals wide, yellow, purple, or +- white (pale red-orange), tips narrowed, generally lobed; styles long or short; ovary tip projection 0. Fruit: oblong-ovate to round, +- compressed side-to-side; fruit-halves +- cylindric, prickly to scaly or tubercled; ribs 0; oil tubes evident or obscure, regularly or irregularly arranged; fruit central axis not obvious. Seed: face flat or grooved.
Species In Genus: +- 40 species: temperate, +- worldwide. Etymology: (Latin: to heal)

Sanicula bipinnatifida Hook.
Habit: Plant 12--60 cm, taprooted. Leaf: simple, 1--2-pinnately dissected, green, glaucous, or +- purple; blade 4--19 cm, oblong-ovate to +- round, main divisions generally 7 or more, generally narrow, sharply toothed. Inflorescence: peduncle 0.5--16 cm; bracts +- fused at base, 6--8, 2.5 mm, < heads, lanceolate; pedicel of bisexual flower 0, of staminate 2 mm, < fruit. Flower: bisexual 8--10, staminate 10--12; calyx lobes +- fused at base, 0.8--1 mm, widely lanceolate, acute; corolla purple or yellow; styles 2 × calyx lobes. Fruit: 3--8 per head, 3--6 mm, ovate to round; prickles stout, curved, inflated, bulbous-based. Seed: face concave. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Open grassland, generally on serpentine, or pine/oak woodland; Elevation: 20--1850 m. Bioregional Distribution: NW, CaRH, SNF, n&c SNH, ScV (Sutter Buttes), CW, SW, MP; Distribution Outside California: to British Columbia, Baja California. Flowering Time: Mar--May
eFlora Treatment Author: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax
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Citation for this treatment: Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax 2016. Sanicula bipinnatifida, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on April 28, 2016.

Sanicula bipinnatifida
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© 2001 Gary A. Monroe
Sanicula bipinnatifida
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© 2007 Neal Kramer
Sanicula bipinnatifida
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© 2005 George W. Hartwell
Sanicula bipinnatifida
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© 2004 Carol W. Witham
Sanicula bipinnatifida
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© 2013 Steve Matson
Sanicula bipinnatifida
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© 2001 Gary A. Monroe

More photos of Sanicula bipinnatifida in CalPhotos

Geographic subdivisions for Sanicula bipinnatifida:
NW, CaRH, SNF, n&c SNH, ScV (Sutter Buttes), CW, SW, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.