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Rumex violascens

Higher Taxonomy
Family: PolygonaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BUCKWHEAT FAMILY
Habit: Annual to shrub [tree]. Stem: nodes swollen or not. Leaf: simple, basal or cauline, generally alternate; ocreae present or 0, generally scarious, persistent or not. Inflorescence: flower clusters in axillary to terminal cyme-, panicle-, raceme-, spike-, umbel- or head-like arrangements, entire inflorescence or main inflorescence branches generally subtended by bracts ("inflorescence bracts"); peduncles present or 0; flower clusters in Eriogoneae-Eriogonoideae subtended by involucre of >= 1 free or +- fused, sometimes awn-tipped bracts ("involucre bracts") or, in Polygonoideae and rarely in Eriogonoideae, not (if bracts completely fused, involucre "tubular"); pedicels in Eriogoneae each often subtended by 2 free, transparent, linear bractlets or in Polygonoideae all subtended by 2+ fused, membranous, wide bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, small, 1--200 per node; perianth parts 2--6, generally in 2 whorls, free or basally fused, generally petal-like, often +- concave adaxially, often darker at midvein, often turning +- red or +- brown in age; stamens [1]3 or 6--9 in 2 whorls; ovary superior, 1-chambered, ovule 1, styles 1--3. Fruit: achenes, included in or exserted from perianth, generally 3-angled, ovoid or elliptic, generally glabrous.
Genera In Family: 48 genera, +- 1200 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate; some cultivated for food (Coccoloba, sea-grape; Fagopyrum, Rheum, Rumex) or ornamental (Antigonon, lovechain; Coccoloba; Muehlenbeckia; Persicaria; Polygonum), a few timbered (Coccoloba; Triplaris). Several (Emex; Fallopia; Persicaria; Polygonum; Rumex) are weeds. Note: Treatment of genera in Eriogonoideae based on monographic work of James L. Reveal. Involucre number throughout is number (1--many) per ultimate grouping, at tips of ultimate branches; flower number is per flower cluster or involucre, unless otherwise stated. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench not naturalized, considered an historical waif (or garden weed +- presently), therefore not treated.
eFlora Treatment Author: Mihai Costea, except as noted
Genus: RumexView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: DOCK
Habit: Annual to perennial herb; glabrous or papillate and hairy; rhizomed, stoloned, or generally from taproot with a short caudex; occasionally dioecious. Stem: prostrate, decumbent, or generally erect to ascending, often +- ridged, red-brown in fruit, nodes +- swollen. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate, petioled except uppermost cauline; ocreae deciduous to persistent. Inflorescence: axillary or generally terminal, generally panicle-like. Flower: generally bisexual, bell-shaped, glabrous, green, +- pink, or red; perianth lobes 6, persistent, in fruit outer 3 +- inconspicuous, inner 3 enlarged, hardened, +- veiny, covering fruit, midrib of 1--3 often expanded into tubercle; stamens 6; stigmas 3, fringed. Fruit: achene, glabrous, +- black or dark brown to +- red.
Species In Genus: 190--200 species: +- worldwide, 63 in North America. Etymology: (Latin: sorrel) Note: Mature inner perianth lobes generally needed for identification. Species often hybridize.
eFlora Treatment Author: Scott Simono

Rumex violascens Rech. f.
NATIVE
Habit: Annual, biennial (short-lived perennial herb), glabrous; taproot vertical or subvertical. Stem: erect, 2.5--7.5 dm, generally stout (appearing perennial herb), branched above. Leaf: blade 6--12(15) cm, (2)3--4(5) cm wide, oblanceolate to elliptic, base widely tapered or rounded (truncate), margin entire, generally flat (+- wavy), tip generally obtuse. Inflorescence: terminal, +- open, interrupted, branches bent at nodes, arched; whorls 10--20-flowered; pedicels 3--8 mm, thread-like, joints swollen. Flower: inner perianth lobe 2.5--3.5(4) mm, 2--2.8(3) mm wide except teeth, widely ovate-triangular to +- deltate, base truncate, margin generally dentate, teeth <= 0.5 mm, 2--3, on both sides, triangular; tubercles 3, ovoid, generally unequal, width +- 1/3 lobe. Fruit: 1.8--2.3 mm, 1.2--1.5 mm wide, brown to red-brown. Chromosomes: 2n=20.
Ecology: Uncommon. Wet places along streams, rivers; Elevation: < 1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: Deltaic ScV, SnJV, SCo, w D, reported from SCoR (Salinas Valley); Distribution Outside California: to Texas, Mexico, also Massachusetts. Flowering Time: Mar--Aug
eFlora Treatment Author: Scott Simono
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botanical illustration including Rumex violascens

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Citation for this treatment: Scott Simono 2016. Rumex violascens, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=42441, accessed on September 28, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on September 28, 2016.


Geographic subdivisions for Rumex violascens:
Deltaic ScV, SnJV, SCo, w D, reported from SCoR (Salinas Valley);
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.