Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Previous taxon Index to accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Next taxon
Rhamnus ilicifolia
HOLLYLEAF REDBERRY

Higher Taxonomy
Family: RhamnaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BUCKTHORN FAMILY
Habit: [Perennial herb] shrub, tree, generally erect, often thorny. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, often clustered on short-shoots; stipules generally present, occasionally modified into spines; generally petioled; blade pinnate-veined or 1--5-ribbed from base. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, umbel, or flowers 1 or clustered in axils or on short-shoots. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium subtending, surrounding, or partly fused to ovary; sepals 4--5; petals 0, 4--5, generally clawed; stamens 0, 4--5, alternate sepals, attached to hypanthium top, each generally fitting into a petal concavity; disk (0 or) between stamens, ovary, thin to fleshy, entire or lobed, free from ovary, adherent or fused to hypanthium; ovary superior or +- inferior, chambers [1]2--4, 1--2-ovuled, style 1, stigma entire or 2--3-lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe.
Genera In Family: 50--52 genera, 950 species: especially tropics, subtropics some cultivated (Ceanothus; Frangula; Rhamnus; Ziziphus).
eFlora Treatment Author: John O. Sawyer, Jr., except as noted
Scientific Editor: Steve Boyd, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Genus: RhamnusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BUCKTHORN
Habit: Shrub, small tree, < 10 m. Stem: branches alternate, stiff or flexible; twigs generally not thorn-tipped; winter bud scales present, generally +- 3 mm. Leaf: scattered along branches or clustered on short-shoots, deciduous or evergreen; stipules generally deciduous; petioles generally glabrous; blade veins prominent or not. Inflorescence: flowers 1 or in cyme-like clusters in axils. Flower: unisexual (bisexual), generally on separate pls, generally < 3 mm; hypanthium bell-shaped to cup-like, 2--3 mm wide; sepals 4--5, thin, spreading, not keeled adaxially; petals 0 or 4--5; disk thin, adhering to hypanthium; ovary appearing superior or partly inferior, chambers 2--4, each 1-ovuled, style 1, stigma 2--4-lobed. Fruit: drupe, 2--3[4]-stoned.
Species In Genus: 110 species: temperate, few tropics; some of value in medicine or as dyes. Etymology: (Greek: name for plants of this genus) Note: W.H. Brewer collected Rhamnus cathartica L., considered invasive in parts of United States, in 1861, but it apparently never naturalized. Other taxa in TJM (1993) moved to Frangula.

Rhamnus ilicifolia Kellogg
NATIVE
Habit: Shrub < 4 m. Stem: bark gray; branches stiff, generally ascending; twigs glabrous to finely hairy. Leaf: evergreen; petiole 2--10 mm; blade 20--40 mm, ovate to round, thick, glabrous adaxially, glabrous or hairy, flat to concave abaxially, base rounded, tip obtuse, rounded, or widely notched, margin entire, irregularly toothed, or prickly, veins prominent or not. Inflorescence: 1--6-flowered, generally glabrous; pedicel 2--4 mm. Flower: generally unisexual; hypanthium +- 2 mm wide; sepals 4; petals 0. Fruit: 2-stoned, 4--8 mm, red. Chromosomes: 2n=24.
Ecology: Chaparral, desert scrub, montane forest; Elevation: < 1150 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP, DMtns; Distribution Outside California: southern Oregon, Arizona, Baja California. Flowering Time: Mar--Jun Note: Intermediates between Rhamnus ilicifolia, Rhamnus insula Kellogg (Baja California) in PR.
eFlora Treatment Author: John O. Sawyer, Jr.
Jepson Online Interchange

Previous taxon: Rhamnus crocea
Next taxon: Rhamnus pilosa

Name Search
botanical illustration including Rhamnus ilicifolia

Contact/Feedback

Citation for this treatment: John O. Sawyer, Jr. 2016. Rhamnus ilicifolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=41070, accessed on July 25, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 25, 2016.


Rhamnus ilicifolia
click for enlargement
© 2014 Keir Morse
Rhamnus ilicifolia
click for enlargement
© 2010 Neal Kramer
Rhamnus ilicifolia
click for enlargement
© 2016 Steve Matson
Rhamnus ilicifolia
click for enlargement
© 2014 Keir Morse
Rhamnus ilicifolia
click for enlargement
© 2009 Keir Morse
Rhamnus ilicifolia
click for enlargement
© 2006 Steve Matson

More photos of Rhamnus ilicifolia in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Rhamnus ilicifolia:
CA-FP, DMtns;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
READ ABOUT YELLOW FLAGS
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records

CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.