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Vascular Plants of California
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Matricaria discoidea
PINEAPPLE WEED, RAYLESS CHAMOMILE


Higher Taxonomy
Family: Asteraceae (Compositae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: SUNFLOWER FAMILY
Habit: Annual to tree. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, alternate, opposite, rarely whorled, simple to 2+ × compound. Inflorescence: 1° inflorescence a head, resembling a flower, of several types (see below), 1--many in generally +- cyme-like cluster; each head generally with +- calyx-like involucre of 1--many series of phyllaries (involucre bracts); receptacle of head flat to conic or columnar, paleate (bearing paleae = receptacle bracts) or epaleate; flowers 1--many per head. Flower: bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, +- small, of several types (see below); calyx 0 or modified into +- persistent pappus of bristles, scales, and/or awns; corolla radial or bilateral (0), lobes generally (0)3--5; stamens 4--5, filaments generally free, generally fused to corolla at tube/throat junction, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, anther base generally rounded or cordate (deeply sagittate or with tail-like appendages), tip (= flattened appendage) generally projecting beyond pollen sac; pistil 1, 2-carpeled, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, placenta basal, style 1, tip generally +- 2-branched (except in some staminate disk flowers), branch tips truncate or generally bearing +- brush-like appendages; stigmas 2, generally on adaxial faces of style branches. Fruit: achene (also called a cypsela) (drupe in Chrysanthemoides), cylindric to ovoid, sometimes compressed, generally deciduous with pappus attached.
Genera In Family: +- 1500 genera, 23000 species: worldwide, many habitats. Note: Flower and head types differ in form and sexual condition. A disk flower has a generally radial corolla, with a cylindric tube, expanded throat, and generally 5 lobes. Disk flowers are generally bisexual and fertile but occasionally staminate with reduced ovaries. Discoid heads comprise only disk flowers. A radiant head is a variant of a discoid head, with peripheral disk flower corollas expanded, often bilateral. A ray flower corolla is bilateral, generally with a slender tube and flattened petal-like ray (single lip composed of generally 3 lobes). Ray flowers are generally pistillate or sterile (occasionally lacking styles). Radiate heads have peripheral ray flowers and central disk flowers. Disciform heads superficially resemble discoid heads, with pistillate or sterile flowers that lack rays, together with or separate from disk flowers. A ligulate flower is bisexual, with a bilateral, generally ephemeral corolla and 5-lobed ligule. Liguliflorous heads comprise only ligulate flowers. See glossary p. 31 for illustrations of family characteristics. Echinops sphaerocephalus L., Gaillardia aristata Pursh, Gaillardia pulchella Foug., Hymenothrix loomisii S.F. Blake, Tagetes erecta L., Thelesperma megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze are waifs. Melampodium perfoliatum Kunth, historic urban waif. Ageratum conyzoides L., Guizotia abyssinica (L. f.) Cass., Santolina chamaecyparisus L., orth. var. are rare or uncommon escapes from cultivation. Dyssodia papposa, Ismelia carinata (Schousb.) Sch. Bip. [Chrysanthemum carinatum Schousb.], Mantisalca salmantica (L.) Briq. & Cavill. are historical or extirpated waifs in California. Inula helenium L. not documented in California. Taxa of Aster in TJM (1993) treated here in Almutaster, Eucephalus, Eurybia, Ionactis, Oreostemma, Sericocarpus, Symphyotrichum; Chamomilla in Matricaria; Bahia in Hymenothrix; Cnicus in Centaurea; Conyza in Erigeron and Laennecia; Dugaldia in Hymenoxys; Erechtites in Senecio; Hymenoclea in Ambrosia; Lembertia in Monolopia; Osteospermum ecklonis in Dimorphotheca; Picris echioides in Helminthotheca; Prionopsis in Grindelia; Raillardiopsis in Anisocarpus and Carlquistia; Schkuhria multiflora in Picradeniopsis; Trimorpha in Erigeron; Venidium in Arctotis; Whitneya in Arnica. Amauriopsis in TJM2 (2012) treated here in Hymenothrix; Arida in Leucosyris; Bahia in Picradeniopsis.
Unabridged Note: Largest family of vascular plants in California and of eudicots globally.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil, except as noted
Scientific Editor: David J. Keil, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: MatricariaView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Habit: Annual, sometimes aromatic. Stem: branched, erect or decumbent. Leaf: alternate, irregularly 2--3-pinnately lobed; segments linear; petiole short or 0. Inflorescence: heads radiate or discoid, 1--3; receptacle conic, epaleate; phyllaries in 2--3 unequal series, margins scarious. Ray Flower: 0 or 10--25; ray white. Disk Flower: many; corolla yellow, tubular, narrowed distally; anthers minute, tip ovate, base rounded or +- cordate; style short, branches truncate with bushy tips. Fruit: cylindric to obconic, gelatinous when wet (in California), 3--5-ribbed; pappus a narrow crown or 0.
Species In Genus: 7 species: Europe, Asia, North America. Etymology: (Greek: womb, describing medicinal use) Note: Chamomilla nomenclaturally superseded by Matricaria.
eFlora Treatment Author: David J. Keil
Reference: Brouillet 2006 FNANM 19:540--542
Matricaria discoidea DC.
NATIVE
Habit: Plant (1)10--30(50) cm; sweet-scented. Stem: generally branched from base. Leaf: <= 5 cm, glabrous, sessile. Inflorescence: heads generally +- 1 cm diam, conic, shattering at maturity. Ray Flower: 0. Disk Flower: corolla 1--2 mm. Fruit: 3--5-veined, with narrow brown glands extending down to +- bottom of fruit; tip truncate; pappus 0 or crown +- entire. Chromosomes: 2n=18.
Ecology: Abundant. Disturbed sites, riverbanks; Elevation: < 2250 m. Bioregional Distribution: CA-FP, SNE, w DMoj; Distribution Outside California: native to northwestern North America, northeastern Asia. Flowering Time: Feb--Aug
Synonyms: Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb.; Santolina suaveolens Pursh; Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter, misappl.
Jepson eFlora Author: David J. Keil
Reference: Brouillet 2006 FNANM 19:540--542
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Citation for this treatment: David J. Keil 2012, Matricaria discoidea, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=4103, accessed on May 19, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on May 19, 2019.

Matricaria discoidea
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© 2008 Chris Winchell
Matricaria discoidea
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Matricaria discoidea
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Matricaria discoidea
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© 2008 Steve Matson
Matricaria discoidea
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© 2008 Keir Morse
Matricaria discoidea
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© 2009 Barry Breckling

More photos of Matricaria discoidea in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Matricaria discoidea:
CA-FP, SNE, w DMoj
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.