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    Vascular Plants of California
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Rapistrum rugosum

Higher Taxonomy
Family: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)View DescriptionDichotomous Key

Habit: Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1--many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
Genera In Family: +- 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. Note: Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central NCoR, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in SCo, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in PR, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern NCoRO, CCo. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: RapistrumView Description 

Common Name: WILD TURNIP
Habit: Annual [perennial herb]; hairs simple [or 0]. Leaf: proximal petioled, pinnately lobed; distal sessile or short-petioled, lobed or dentate, base not lobed. Inflorescence: much elongated. Flower: sepals ascending, base not sac-like; petals obovate, yellow, short-clawed. Fruit: silicle, indehiscent, segmented, strongly constricted between segments; proximal segment tardily dehiscent, 1(3)-seeded; terminal segment indehiscent, 1-seeded (seedless); stigma 2-lobed. Seed: 1--4, in 1 row, wingless.
Species In Genus: 2 species: Europe. Etymology: (Latin: turnip-like)
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz

Rapistrum rugosum (L.) All.
Habit: Plant erect; hairs stiff. Stem: (1)3--10(15) dm, branched distally. Leaf: basal 2--25 cm, oblanceolate to obovate, lateral lobe pairs 1--5. Flower: sepals 2.5--5 mm; petals 6--11 mm, 2.5--4 mm, pale yellow. Fruit: hairy or glabrous; proximal segment 0.7--3 mm, ellipsoid; terminal segment 1.5--3.5 mm, 1--2.8 mm wide, spheric to ovoid, generally ribbed; style 1--3(5) mm; pedicel erect, appressed, 1.5--5 mm. Seed: 1.5--2.5 mm, ovoid. Chromosomes: 2n=16.
Ecology: Disturbed areas, fields; Elevation: < 200 m. Bioregional Distribution: CCo; Distribution Outside California: to Washington, Ontario, eastern United States, Mexico; native to southern Europe. Flowering Time: Apr--Jul Note: Doubtfully naturalized in California.
eFlora Treatment Author: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
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botanical illustration including Rapistrum rugosum


Citation for this treatment: Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz 2012, Rapistrum rugosum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 21, 2018.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2018, Jepson eFlora,, accessed on September 21, 2018.

Geographic subdivisions for Rapistrum rugosum:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.