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Vascular Plants of California
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Ranunculus arvensis


Higher Taxonomy
Family: RanunculaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key
Common Name: BUTTERCUP FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, woody vine [shrub], occasionally aquatic. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate or opposite, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, occasionally sheathing or stipule-like. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 3--6(20), free, early-deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0--many, generally free; stamens generally 5--many, staminodes generally 0; pistils 1--many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 0--1, generally +- persistent as beak, ovules 1--many. Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, +- utricle in Trautvetteria, in aggregate or not, 1--many-seeded.
Genera In Family: +- 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate, tropical mountains; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Helleborus, Nigella). Toxicity: some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus). Note: Taxa of Isopyrum in TJM (1993) moved to Enemion; Kumlienia moved to Ranunculus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken, family description, key to genera
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: RanunculusView DescriptionDichotomous Key


Common Name: BUTTERCUP
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, occasionally from stolons or caudices, terrestrial or aquatic; roots generally fibrous. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, generally reduced upward; petiole base flat, stipule-like or not; basal, proximal cauline petioles generally long; blades simple to dissected or compound, entire to toothed. Inflorescence: cyme, axillary or terminal, 1--few-flowered. Flower: sepals 3--5(6), generally early-deciduous, generally green to yellow or purple; petals 0--17[(150)], shiny, generally yellow, occasionally white or purple, nectaries near base, pocket-like or with flap-like scale; anthers yellow; pistils generally many. Fruit: achene, compressed or not, +- spheric, disk-like (width 3--15 × depth), or lenticular (width 1--2 × depth), beaked.
Species In Genus: +- 300 species: worldwide except lowland tropics; some ornamental. Etymology: (Latin: diminutive of Rana, frog, from wet habitats)
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan T. Whittemore
Ranunculus arvensis L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual, biennial 10--40 cm, erect or ascending, not bulbous-based; roots basal, not tuberous. Leaf: basal, proximal cauline 1.8--5.2 cm, 1.6--4.2 cm wide, obovate to wedge-shaped, deeply lobed or dissected, leaflets oblanceolate, divided into entire or distally dentate, oblanceolate or linear segments or not, leaflet base narrowly acuminate, tip rounded, dentate or acuminate. Flower: receptacle sparsely bristly; sepals 5, spreading, 4--7 mm, 1--2 mm wide, early-deciduous; petals 5, 5--8 mm, 2--4 mm wide. Fruit: body 4--6.4 mm, 8--9 mm wide, disk-like, wall spiny; beak 1.6--3.8 mm, straight, lanceolate to awl-shaped.
Ecology: Roadsides, fields, disturbed areas; Elevation: < 1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRI, CaR, n SNF, ScV, MP; Distribution Outside California: to Washington, New York, South America, Australia; native to Eurasia. Flowering Time: Apr--May
Jepson eFlora Author: Alan T. Whittemore
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Botanical illustration including Ranunculus arvensis

botanical illustration including Ranunculus arvensis

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Citation for this treatment: Alan T. Whittemore 2012, Ranunculus arvensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/eflora_display.php?tid=40860, accessed on November 21, 2019.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2019, Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/eflora/, accessed on November 21, 2019.

Ranunculus arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling
Ranunculus arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling
Ranunculus arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Ranunculus arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling

More photos of Ranunculus arvensis in CalPhotos



Geographic subdivisions for Ranunculus arvensis:
KR, NCoRI, CaR, n SNF, ScV, MP
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).





 

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Blue markers indicate specimens that map to one of the expected Jepson geographic subdivisions (see left map). Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.