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Ranunculus arvensis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: RanunculaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BUTTERCUP FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, woody vine [shrub], occasionally aquatic. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate or opposite, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, occasionally sheathing or stipule-like. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 3--6(20), free, early-deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0--many, generally free; stamens generally 5--many, staminodes generally 0; pistils 1--many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 0--1, generally +- persistent as beak, ovules 1--many. Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, +- utricle in Trautvetteria, in aggregate or not, 1--many-seeded.
Genera In Family: +- 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate, tropical mountains; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Helleborus, Nigella). Toxicity: some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus). Note: Taxa of Isopyrum in TJM (1993) moved to Enemion; Kumlienia moved to Ranunculus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken, family description, key to genera
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: RanunculusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BUTTERCUP
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, occasionally from stolons or caudices, terrestrial or aquatic; roots generally fibrous. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, generally reduced upward; petiole base flat, stipule-like or not; basal, proximal cauline petioles generally long; blades simple to dissected or compound, entire to toothed. Inflorescence: cyme, axillary or terminal, 1--few-flowered. Flower: sepals 3--5(6), generally early-deciduous, generally green to yellow or purple; petals 0--17[(150)], shiny, generally yellow, occasionally white or purple, nectaries near base, pocket-like or with flap-like scale; anthers yellow; pistils generally many. Fruit: achene, compressed or not, +- spheric, disk-like (width 3--15 × depth), or lenticular (width 1--2 × depth), beaked.
Species In Genus: +- 300 species: worldwide except lowland tropics; some ornamental. Etymology: (Latin: diminutive of Rana, frog, from wet habitats)
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan T. Whittemore

Ranunculus arvensis L.
NATURALIZED
Habit: Annual, biennial 10--40 cm, erect or ascending, not bulbous-based; roots basal, not tuberous. Leaf: basal, proximal cauline 1.8--5.2 cm, 1.6--4.2 cm wide, obovate to wedge-shaped, deeply lobed or dissected, leaflets oblanceolate, divided into entire or distally dentate, oblanceolate or linear segments or not, leaflet base narrowly acuminate, tip rounded, dentate or acuminate. Flower: receptacle sparsely bristly; sepals 5, spreading, 4--7 mm, 1--2 mm wide, early-deciduous; petals 5, 5--8 mm, 2--4 mm wide. Fruit: body 4--6.4 mm, 8--9 mm wide, disk-like, wall spiny; beak 1.6--3.8 mm, straight, lanceolate to awl-shaped.
Ecology: Roadsides, fields, disturbed areas; Elevation: < 1000 m. Bioregional Distribution: KR, NCoRI, CaR, n SNF, ScV, MP; Distribution Outside California: to Washington, New York, South America, Australia; native to Eurasia. Flowering Time: Apr--May
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan T. Whittemore
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Previous taxon: Ranunculus aquatilis var. diffusus
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botanical illustration including Ranunculus arvensis

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Citation for this treatment: Alan T. Whittemore 2016. Ranunculus arvensis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=40860, accessed on July 23, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on July 23, 2016.


Ranunculus arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Ranunculus arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling
Ranunculus arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2015 Barry Breckling
Ranunculus arvensis
click for enlargement
© 2011 Barry Breckling

More photos of Ranunculus arvensis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Ranunculus arvensis:
KR, NCoRI, CaR, n SNF, ScV, MP;
Markers link to CCH specimen records. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues. Purple markers indicate specimens collected from a garden, greenhouse, or other non-wild location.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.