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Ranunculus aquatilis

Higher Taxonomy
Family: RanunculaceaeView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BUTTERCUP FAMILY
Habit: Annual, perennial herb, woody vine [shrub], occasionally aquatic. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate or opposite, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, occasionally sheathing or stipule-like. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 3--6(20), free, early-deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0--many, generally free; stamens generally 5--many, staminodes generally 0; pistils 1--many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 0--1, generally +- persistent as beak, ovules 1--many. Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, +- utricle in Trautvetteria, in aggregate or not, 1--many-seeded.
Genera In Family: +- 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate, tropical mountains; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Helleborus, Nigella). Toxicity: some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus). Note: Taxa of Isopyrum in TJM (1993) moved to Enemion; Kumlienia moved to Ranunculus.
eFlora Treatment Author: Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken, family description, key to genera
Scientific Editor: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Genus: RanunculusView DescriptionDichotomous Key

Common Name: BUTTERCUP
Habit: Annual to perennial herb, occasionally from stolons or caudices, terrestrial or aquatic; roots generally fibrous. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal, cauline, or both, alternate, generally reduced upward; petiole base flat, stipule-like or not; basal, proximal cauline petioles generally long; blades simple to dissected or compound, entire to toothed. Inflorescence: cyme, axillary or terminal, 1--few-flowered. Flower: sepals 3--5(6), generally early-deciduous, generally green to yellow or purple; petals 0--17[(150)], shiny, generally yellow, occasionally white or purple, nectaries near base, pocket-like or with flap-like scale; anthers yellow; pistils generally many. Fruit: achene, compressed or not, +- spheric, disk-like (width 3--15 × depth), or lenticular (width 1--2 × depth), beaked.
Species In Genus: +- 300 species: worldwide except lowland tropics; some ornamental. Etymology: (Latin: diminutive of Rana, frog, from wet habitats)
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan T. Whittemore

Ranunculus aquatilis L.
NATIVE
Habit: Perennial herb (5)20--80 cm, aquatic or creeping on mud, rooting at nodes. Leaf: submersed or floating and submersed; submersed generally 3--6-dissected; stipules tapered, united. Flower: receptacle bristly; sepals 5, spreading or reflexed, 2--4 mm, 1--2 mm wide, early-deciduous; petals 5, 4--7 mm, 1--5 mm wide, white or white with yellow claws; style 0.2--1.2 mm. Fruit: 15--many, body 1--2 mm, 0.8--1.4 mm wide, lenticular, wall thick, transversely wrinkled, beak persistent, thread-like.

Synonyms: Ranunculus aquatilus, orth. var.
eFlora Treatment Author: Alan T. Whittemore
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Citation for this treatment: Alan T. Whittemore 2016. Ranunculus aquatilis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=40858, accessed on February 14, 2016.

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2016. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on February 14, 2016.


Ranunculus aquatilis var. diffusus
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© 2007 Steve Matson
Ranunculus aquatilis var. diffusus
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© 2009 Barry Breckling
Ranunculus aquatilis var. diffusus
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© 2016 Neal Kramer
Ranunculus aquatilis
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© 2005 Christopher L. Christie
Ranunculus aquatilis
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© 2005 Steve Matson
Ranunculus aquatilis var. diffusus
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© 2007 George W. Hartwell

More photos of Ranunculus aquatilis in CalPhotos


Geographic subdivisions for Ranunculus aquatilis:
Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.